Music Therapy in Handel's England: Browne's Medicina Musica (1729)

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The development of contemporary uses for music in therapy is generally attributed to the twentieth century or even the late nineteenth century; however, a text on the subject was published in 1729. The book, Medicina Musica, or, a Mechanical Essay on the Effects of Singing, Musick, and Dancing on Human Bodies (London: Printed for John Cooke, Bookseller in Uppingham; and Sold by J. and J. Knapton, at the Crown in St. Paul's Church, 1729), was written by Richard Browne, an apothecary in Oakham in the County of Rutland. When the book was printed, London was a city of slightly fewer than one million people, King George II was in his second year of reign, and the first performance of John Gay's Beggar's Opera was only one year old. Handel, who had arrived in London seventeen years earlier, was in mid-career and had not yet written his monumental Messiah (1741-42).

Beyond Browne's occupation and location which are given on the title page of the book, all that is known about the author is that he was educated at Queen's College, Oxford, and attended medical school at the University of Leyden in 1675 and 1676. On September 30, 1676, he was licensed by the Royal College of Physicians and nothing is known of his medical career. He had reportedly written an early treatise on music and medicine in 1674 which has not widely circulated and apparently has not survived. It was followed by at least three other medical and scientific texts between 1678 and 1694. Given the 1729 publication date of Medicina Musica, it was quite possibly a posthumous publication.1

The book was dedicated "To the Right Honourable BAPTIST Earl of Gainsborough, Viscount Campden, Baron Noel of Ridlington, and Baron Hicks of Ilmington, etc.,"2 who was probably Edward Noel, first son of Baptist Noel (1611-1682) by his third wife, Hester. All that is known of Edward Noel is that he was the first earl of Gainsborough, who received a pension of 8,000 pounds per year from his father in 1662, upon the occasion of his marriage to Elizabeth Wriothesley.3

Browne's sources were well-known medical and scientific authors of his day: Archibald Pitcairne (1652-1713), Hermann Boerhaave (1668-1738), Georgius Baglivi (1668-1707), Lorenzo Bellini (1643-1704), Marcello Malpighi (1628-1694), Thomas Sydenham (1624-1689), and John Freind (1675-1728). Browne may have known some of these men personally, but he knew others only through their publications. Most of the books and articles these famous medical men wrote had been issued in London prior to 1729.

In defense of a proposition on digestion (pp. 9-10), Brown referred to "Dr. Pitcairn's Opuscula." This was probably not by the famous English physician, Archibald Pitcairne, but was more likely a work titled Opuscula aliquot by Lorenzo Bellini,4 which Bellini had dedicated to Dr. Pitcairne. Bellini was considered a founder of Italian iatromechanism which utilized mechanical models to explain bodily functions. In 1692, Pitcairne wrote to Bellini in support of his use of mathematical formulas to solve medical problems, and Bellini returned the compliment by dedicating his book to Pitcairne.5

On page twenty of Medicina Musica, Browne cited "The Learned Boerhaave," in support of an argument concerning digestion. Hermann Boerhaave was also a student at the University of Leyden, but entered the school in 1684, eight years after Browne had left it. Browne probably took his information from Boerhaave's Institutiones medicae (1708) or his Aphorismi de cognoscendi et curandis morbis (1709), both of which were widely published in Latin and English. Boerhaave in turn was much indebted to other sources quoted by Browne, such as Malpighi, Baglivi, Sydenham, and Bellini.6

Browne unfortunately retold the old myth about how the effects of a tarantula bite were cured by "the sprightly Strokes of an Allegro Consort" (p. 50). In citing Drs. Mead and Baglivi as sources, Browne perpetuated a story of dubious origins, subsequently proven false.7 Mead was another Leyden graduate (1692-1695), a student of Boerhaave and Pitcairne,and a follower of Sydenham.8 Baglivi was a student of Malpighi, a friend of Bellini, and a proponent of the iatrophysical theories of biomechanism.9 Browne probably took the tarantula tale, without sufficient criticism, from a medical treatise of Baglivi which had been published in English in 1704.10

In a discussion of the effects of dancing on the circulatory system, Browne cited "the incomparable Bellini," as an authority on ague and capillary action.11 In all probability, Browne was referring to a discussion in Bellini's Opuscula aliquot on those topics, or possibly Browne was citing one of Bellini's earlier works in circulation.12

In the fourth chapter of his text, Browne made reference to Marcello Malpighi's work on embryology and neurology. Malpighi was well known to the medical community of London through his correspondence with the Royal Society which began in 1667, and he was also highly regarded for the publication of his medical books in London from 1669 to 1697.13

In a discussion of digestion on page eighty-two, Browne cited "the learned Dr. Pitcairn [sic], Hecquet, and others." As noted earlier, the authority on digestion was probably Bellini, whose work was dedicated to Pitcairne. "Dr. Hecquet" was probably Jean Pecquet, a French anatomist,14 whose work on digestion was published in London in 1653.15

Browne cited Richard Lower's work on circulation (pp. 84, 91-93), probably taken from the latter's Tractus du Corde, which was published in Amsterdam in 1671 and in London in 1680. Brown may have known Lower personally, since Lower was a student at Oxford from 1649 to 1665 and had stayed at the University through 1666.16

On Page 106, Browne credited Thomas Sydenham with the origination of the term, "Hysterick Cholick." Sydenham was another Oxford graduate (1642-1649), who was in residence at the University until 1655. In 1651, Sydenham may have been in the vicinity of Leiceser, near Browne's home at Oakham in Rutland county. Sydenham's work was highly regarded by Boerhaave and others at Leyden where Browne also studied.17

In a description of medications, Browne referred to a "Dr. Friend, De remediorum viribis," probably meaning Dr. John Freind, another Oxford-educated English physician whose friendships are known to have included Drs. Mead, Baglivi, and Pitcairne.18

Throughout his treatise Browne described the activity of the spirits and their effort on physical and emotional responses in the human body. Undoubtedly, he based his discussion on the Cartesian physiological program in which Descartes explained human physiological and psychological processes;19 however, Browne did not cite Descartes' work.

Other references which are not documented by Browne are the story of Achilles being calmed by a harp (p. 42) which was probably taken from the ninth book of The Iliad,20 Timothaeus' use of music to appease Alexander (p. 43),21 and the famous story of David's cure of Saul's madness (pp. 47-48), from I Samuel, Chapter xvi.22 Finally, Browne wrote in general terms of "the fine Adagio and Allegro Parts in Italian Operas" (p. 38), which would suggest he had a preference for that music. No other direct references to Italian opera or any other style appeared in the text.

The evidence from references cited by Browne and other historical information begins to establish the authenticity of Medicina Musica; however, credibility for the modern reader must be established by comparing Browne's basic ideas with current knowledge of the field. This requires an examination of (1) recent research which rejects Browne's basic ideas, (2) ideas articulated by Browne which are still accepted but have not yet been adequately tested, and (3) ideas put forth by Browne in 1729 which are no longer widely accepted but which have not been affirmed or rejected by subsequent research. Beyond this, areas of current practice in music therapy which were not considered by Browne must be taken into account to assess the breadth of his treatise in comparison with contemporary definitions of the field.

Browne was concerned with the influences of music on the human body. Specifically, he argued the effects of music on such things are extramusical associations, moods, psychosomatic disorders, cardiovascular systems, and digestion. He also acknowledged the different effects of stimulative and sedative music, made recommendations for using music to prevent disease, and suggested some instances where music might do more harm than good.

Browne began his essay with a discussion of singing. His reference to singing as a source of pleasure which would in turn give rise to pleasing ideas through extramusical associations was evident when he wrote:

Now, for the Solution of this Truth, Paradoxical as it is, let us suppose a Man's Ear to be so fitly modulated, as that by this Instrument of Conveyance the Mind is enabled to form a nice and clear Idea of a Tune; let us also suppose this Composition to be so exact and harmonious, as highly to please the intellectual Faculty: If then at any time he permits his Thoughts to dwell only upon this delightful system of sounds, and at the same time determines the Motion of the Organs that are appropriated for their Modification; as they are here supposed to be uncapable of forming any agreeable Musick, we cannot in reason imagine that any Pleasure can hence arise from immediate Sensation, but only from Reflection upon the pleasing Ideas of the Tune before formed and treasured up in the Mind. (pp. 3-4)

This notion that music can result in extramusical associations is a current premise in the music therapy field.23 While Browne acknowledged the possibility that only pleasureable associations arise, contemporary music therapists use music to stimulate a wide range of associations.24 Browne's ideas have, therefore, been expanded in current practice.

Browne's idea that pleasure, an affective response, could not arise from immediate sensation but only from the pleasing ideas associated with music is narrow. Contemporary literature indicates that affective response, and hence pleasureable responses, are associated with a broad range of behaviors including perception, memory, learning, reasoning, and action.25 Various contemporary researches have attempted to determine the impact of music on affect with physiological measures, mood responses, and philosophical inquiry.26 Results have been inconclusive because of problems in determining various factors which influence affective responses to music. It is certain, however, that pleasure in music depends on more than extramusical associations.

Browne suggested that singing was pleasureable regardless of the singer's vocal capabilities: "And thus by singing we may chear [sic] and elevate the Soul, though the Voice be harsh and inharmonious" (p. 4). The concept that perfection in musical production is not necessarily integral with the benefits of music is basic to current music therapy practice as it uses singing and other musical activities. Treatment emphasis is now placed on successful musical experiences at whatever level individuals may be able to function. Consequently, advanced musical skills are not always necessary prerequisites to participation in music therapy.27

Though Browne recognized the benefits of singing prior to development of other musical skills, he indicated pleasure from singing increased with musical training:

This Pleasure in Singing admits very much of Improvement; for by frequenting the School of Musick, we not only tune the Organ of Hearing, and refine its distinguishing Faculty, so as to give the Soul a more nice Perception of Harmony; but by the Application of Theory, (as in the other Arts and Sciences), we become more capable of judging of the Truth and Exactness of the Composition: By this means we are enabled to treasure up in our Minds more clear and true Ideas of every mystical Beauty and Embellishment in the Tune; and by raising the Descernment of the Ear into Delicacy, every fine tremulous Oscillation, which to vulgar Ears would be imperceptible, and thereby much of the Harmony be abated, is destinctly [sic] felt and enjoyed: This Pleasure also may be improved in some measure by habituating ourselves to sing; for by Exercise the Organs will gain a greater Strength and Agility in their Action, and thereby be adapted more nicely to modulate the Voice into a Tune. (pp. 5-6)

No current literature in the music therapy field supports Browne's pleasure with practice argument; however, if practice and subsequent skill development promotes successful musical experiences, and if those successful experiences heighten pleasure, then practice may heighten pleasure. The relationship among such factors as practice, successful experience, and heightened pleasure may well exist, but such contentions have yet to be rigorously tested.

Browne further described singing as an adjunct to medical treatments to cure melancholy and other nervous disorders. He wrote that such disorders resulted from deficient or depressed spirits, and he suggested that singing might contribute to a cure because it invigorated the spirits and provided positive thoughts for reflection. He also argued that more women than men suffered from melancholy because, he believed, their constitutions were weaker. He also acknowledged great practical difficulties in persuading a melancholy person to sing (pp. 16-17).

The disorder Browne labelled as melancholy is currently considered a severe form of depression which is particularly responsive to somatic therapy and is far more common in women.28 Melancholy was no doubt a form of depression in Browne's time, but its severity then is not now known. Currently its causes are attributed to chronic physical illness, alcohol dependence, psychosocial stress, and other disorders and not to deficient or depressed spirits as Browne contended.29

A survey of contemporary research is hard put to come up with studies which identify the most appropriate use of music for treatment of depressed persons or the most appropriate approach to encourage their participation in musical activities. While contemporary treatment programs often include attempts to use music with the depressed, research fails to document the effects of this. While Browne recommended singing to alleviate melancholy, contemporary music therapy programs are much more diverse and include activities other than just singing.

Difficulty in motivating depressed persons to participate in music or other kinds of treatment is commonly acknowledge by contemporary music therapists. Most would recognize, however, that willingness to participate depends on the severity of the depression, and that some depressed persons do not participate in music while others seem influenced by it to participate. Some music therapists attribute such participation to the power of particular musical selections which could possibly stimulate extramusical associations or evoke temporary shifts in mood.

Browne claimed that moods or emotions could affect the body and cause disease. Though he thought excessive passions such as anger, rage, and impatience disrupted the spirits bringing on disease, current research shows how psychological factors can lead to somatic complaints and physical disorders.30 These complaints often include conversion or pseudo-neurological illness, gastrointestinal distress, female reproduction disorders, psychosexual complaints, pain, and cardiopulmonary symptoms. These generally result from no apparent physical problem but are common in anxious or depressed persons or those with antisocial personalities.

Browne thought music could change moods, and contemporary search upholds him in asserting that music can reflect moods and even evoke them.31 Music which influences moods is defined by several parameters. Among them is rhythm, which can be used to help determine stimulative and sedative tendencies. E. Thayer Gaston described stimulative music as that which has pronounced percussive sounds and detached rhythms that tend to induce muscular tension and promote physical energy and bodily movement. He described sedative music as that which lacks percussive elements, is minimally rhythmic or even monotonous in nature, and tends to promote musical relaxation.32

Browne contended swift notes resulted in musical activity and swift, bold sounds invigorated the motion of the spirits. He recommended adagio music for persons with anger, rage and madness, but he favored allegro music for persons with melancholy. He advised slow, soft sounds for quieting the body and allegro sounds for rousing and invigorating the motion of the spirits. He also advocated cheerful, vivacious music for preserving health by stimulation of plentiful and regular secretion of the spirits (pp. 35-37).

Browne actually described the effects of stimulative and sedative music on mood. Such effects have subsequently been examined by an empirical study in which music was matched to subjects' moods. The quality and content of the music was then altered in a gradual, stepwise fashion to reflect moods opposite those of the subjects. Results of the study showed subjects' moods were changed as the music was altered.33 Therefore, music might be used to influence mood changes, and Browne's contentions concerning the uses of allegro (stimulative) and adagio (sedative) music have become common practice.

In addition to the influence of music on mood, Browne proposed that music had an effect on physiological functions, namely heart rate, blood circulation, and digestion. While his descriptions of these were not as detailed as those for the influence of music on mood, he argued that heart rate and blood circulation depended on the influx of spirits which, in turn, could be increased by singing. He thought singing also caused gastric motility and promoted digestion. He also speculated that dancing contributed to relieving obstructions in the capillaries, thereby promoting improved circulation.

Browne was not definite in his descriptions of music's influence on physiological processes, but later research attempted to determine this. Generally, subsequent research analyzed stimulative and sedative effects of music or other sound stimuli on various physiological responses. Several studies have indicated external influences on heart rate. One of these measured subjects' heart rates after they were exposed to sound pulsations which were either faster or slower than their respiration rates.34 Another reported similar results in a study of heart rate patterns, in which the investigator observed his own heart rate. He noted that after working four months around sound stimuli of 140 to 160 beats per minute, his heart rate increased to 120 to 140 beats per minute. In an attempt to lower his heart rate, he decreased the external sound to seventy-two beats per minute. After twelve weeks, his pulse decreased, but it was still about average at ninety-two beats per minute.35

A more recent study further supported the hypothesis that external rhythmic stimuli affect heart rates. Here, subjects' heart beats were amplified electronically so they could hear them. As heart rates increased, a mechanically produced sound stimulus was substituted for the heart beats. This mechanical sound simulated slow heart beats. As subjects listened to the slow, mechanical sounds, their heart rates decreased.36

In 1981, Grace Malcolm also studied the effect of external rhythm on heart rates. She measured heart rates of college music majors after exposure to sedative and stimulative drum beats. Age, musical training, gender, preference and mood factors were considered, and results showed no significant differences in heart rates for the two kinds of music, though there was a trend for increased heart rate to occur in response to stimulative music.37 Another study examined the effect of music on pulse rate, blood pressure and test scores in college students. Results showed students who heard music before an examination had lower blood pressures and higher scores on the test than did students who heard no music. The study concluded that music effectively reduced tension levels in college students.38

In 1979, Olga Ruiz investigated the effects of progressively stimulative music on college music and nonmusic majors. She found no statistically significant differences in changes of heart rate for either group.39 Hyde, in a much older study, considered the influence of sedative and stimulative music on heart rate and blood pressure. Her results suggested that physiological changes did not occur in subjects when they did not like the music, while heart rate and blood pressure did increase in subjects who liked the music.40 Thus, there have been indications that musical preference is a factor in the influence of music on physiological responses.

Several subsequent studies have supported the idea that people tend to respond differently to music they consider beautiful or to music they consider unpleasant to listen to. Rather consistent findings affirm the general idea that music which is enjoyable tends to relax listeners, while music which is not enjoyable tends to produce tense physiological responses.41

Some research literature shows tendencies for heart rate increases in response to fast music and heart rate decreases in response to slow music.42 Another study showed a tendency for heart rate to increase in response to any type of music.43 All tendencies for heart rate changes in response to music, however, are not great enough for statistical significance, and some research shows no tendencies for heart rate change in response to music.44 Such inconclusive results can be due to various confounding variables, such as music preferences, which influence heart rate and blood pressure responses to music. Additional research is still needed to clarify the relationships between music and physiological responses.

No contemporary research exists to confirm or deny Browne's assertions concerning the effects of dancing on the circulation, nor does any research convincingly confirm or deny his contention that singing effects gastric motility. One study, however, examined the effects of stimulative and sedative music on gastric motility and the effects of music on stomach secretions. The results of this study showed non-musically trained male subjects had gastric activity increases with stimulative music and decreases with sedative music. Musically trained subjects of both sexes and non-musically trained female subjects had decreases in gastric motility with both stimulative and sedative music. The study suggested that subjects with increased gastric activity were more relaxed than subjects with decreased activity because of the kind of music they had listened to.45

Results of a study on the effects of music on stomach secretions showed subjects who considered musical stimuli pleasant had a decrease in gastric secretions. Subjects who considered the musical stimuli unpleasant had even greater decreases in gastric secretions while subjects who were indifferent had little or no change. It was concluded that opinions concerning musical preference seem to influence the amount of gastric secretions while listening to music.46

In addition to heart rate, blood pressure, and gastric motility responses to music, other studies of physiological responses have been done. One has found a significant increase in the pupil size of the eye with stimulative music and a significant decrease with sedative music.47 Another noted a tendency for increased galvanic skin response with both stimulative and sedative music.48 William W. Sears found both stimulative and sedative types of music to be effective in altering muscle tone, particularly in non-musicians, but he also found the type and degree of change to depend upon whether the subject was male or female and musician or non-musician.49 Two other studies demonstrated subjects' anxiety levels increased with stimulative music while sedative music had no significant effects.50

Several studies have provided evidence that musical training has an affect on physiological responses.51 With one exception,52 the studies determined greater physiological responses in musically trained subjects than in musically untrained subjects. Some studies also showed males and females responded differently to music.53

Research in music therapy tends to show that stimulative and sedative music types influence various physiological and psychological responses, but most results are inconclusive due to variables which confound results. Two of these variables are musical preference and musical training. Dale Taylor identified another, the precategorization of music as stimulative and sedative. In this research precategorized music was tested to determine its impact on relaxation and tension. The results showed precategorized sedative music did not necessarily elicit relaxation and precategorized stimulative music did not necessarily elicit stimulation. He also found that galvanic skin responses did not significantly change with either precategorized music type, nor did subjects' classification of music agree with the precategorizations. Taylor concluded that precategorized music did not always elicit expected physiological changes because of individual differences in preference, background, musical training, mood, personality and possibly other factors.54

In Medicina Musica, Browne anticipated some physiological reactions to music, and he proposed that music could be used as a preventive treatment in health care. He did not elaborate on prevention except to say that cheerful and vivacious allegros were the best type of music to assure good health because they caused plentiful secretions of the spirits. He also asserted that dancing could provide benefits to health, but he warned against dancing if it interfered with getting enough sleep. He was adamant that rest was important in providing the necessary opportunity for recuperation of the spirits for the following day. In addition to depriving one of rest, Browne believed dance was also harmful when it caused excessive perspiration. On the other hand, he advocated dancing as a way of exhausting the spirits which could lead to a predisposition to disease.

No research appears to have considered the negative effects of music and dancing on health. It is possible, however, that if music or dancing can be used to influence good health, they may also be factors in poor health conditions. Research simply has not yet established these relationships, and, given the problems of human experimentation, it may not be done any time soon.

Browne concluded his 125-page essay with a lengthy discussion of various diseases, all of which he attributed to an imbalance or a deficit in the spirits of the body. Although these analyses seem naive today, he was probably at or near the state of the art in his age.

While Browne discussed therapeutic uses of music with physically ill as well as melancholic and normal persons, he did not mention other therapeutic applications common to the profession today. Among these are music therapy with the developmentally delayed, the orthopedically handicapped, the visually and hearing impaired, the speech delayed, the learning disabled and the elderly. Therapeutic uses of music have also expanded to include stress relief, relaxation, childbirth and psychiatric treatment for a broad range of disorders which Browne did not consider or which were not likely known in the early eighteenth century.

Richard Browne's Medicina Musica is a significant document in the history of music therapy and related fields because it was the first treatise in the English language to assert that (1) success in music does not depend on proficiency attainable only by practiced musicians but rather on success at appropriate ability and function levels; (2) music can change and evoke moods; (3) music can give rise to extra musical associations; (4) emotions can cause psychosomatic disorders; (5) stimulative and sedative music can have differing effects on individuals; (6) music can influence physiological processes; (7) music may be harmful in treating some health conditions; (8) music has a wide variety of therapeutic applications; and (9) music may be used in preventive health care. Although he failed to anticipate many applications now common in the music therapy profession, Richard Browne's contributions and foresight in the field of music therapy are remarkable.


1Dictionary of National Biography (1968), s.v. "Browne or Brown, Richard (fl. 1674-1694)," by George Thomas Bettany.

2Browne, Medicina Musica, p. iii.

3Dictionary of National Biography (1968), s.v., "Noel, Baptist," by William Arthur Shaw.

4Lorenzo Bellini, Opuscula aliquot ad Archibaldum Pitcairnium . . . De motu cordis . . . De motu bilis . . . De fermitis et glandulis (Leiden: C. Boutesteyn, 1695).

5Pitcairne was on the faculty at Leyden (Browne's alma mater, 1675-1676) in 1692-1693; see Dictionary of National Biography (1968), s.v., "Pitcairne, Archibald," by Thomas Finlayson Henderson; see also Dictionary of Scientific Biography (1970), s.v. "Bellini, Lorenzo," by Theodore M. Brown.

6Dictionary of Scientific Biography (1970), s.v. "Boerhaave, Hermann," by G.A. Lindeboom.

7See Charles Burney, A General History of Music, ed. by Frank Mercer (London: Oxford University Press, 1935), p. 157.

8Dictionary of National Biography (1968), s.v. "Mead, Richard, M.D.," by Thomas Seccombe.

9Dictionary of Scientific Biography (1970), s.v. "Baglivi, Georgius," by M.D. Grmek.

10Giorgio Baglivi, The Practice of Physick Reduc'd to the Ancient Way of Observations . . . (London: Printed for A. Bell [etc.], 1704). Baglivi's first name is given variously as Georgius, which he (or his publishers) apparently preferred, and Giorgio.

11Browne, Medicina Musica, p. 56.

12Lorenzo Bellini, De urinis et pulsibus et missione sanguinis de febrius, de morbis captis, et pectoris (Bologna: Ex Typographia HH, Antonii Pisarii, 1683).

13Dictionary of Scientific Biography (1970), s.v. "Malpighi, Marcello," by Luigi Belloni.

14Dictionary of Scientific Biography (1970), s.v. "Pecquet, Jean," by Pierre Huard and Marie-Jose Imbault-Huart.

15Jean Pecquet, New Anatomical Experiments, By Which the Hitherto Unknown Receptacle of the Chyle, and the Transmission From Thence to the Subclavical Veines by Now Discovered Lacteal Chanels of the Thorax, is Plainly Made Apear in Brutes (London: Printed by T.W. for Octavian Pulleyn, 1653).

16Dictionary of National Biography (1968), s.v. "Lower, Richard," by Joseph Frank Payne.

17Dictionary of National Biography (1968), s.v. "Sydenham, Thomas," by Joseph Frank Payne.

18Dictionary of National Biography (1968), s.v. "Freind, John, M.D.," by William Alexander Greenhill.

19Rene Descartes, "The Passions of the Soul," in The Philosophical Works of Descartes, 2 vols., translated by Elizabeth S. Haldane and G.R.T. Ross (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1967), I, 328-427.

20See Burney, A General History of Music, p. 277.

21Ibid., p. 155.

22Ibid., pp. 196-197.

23William W. Sears, "Processes in Music Therapy," in Music in Therapy, ed. E. Thayer Gaston (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1968), pp. 38-39.

24Helen L. Bonny and Louis M. Savary, Music and Your Mind: Listening with a New Consciousness, 2nd ed. (New York: Harper & Row, Publishers, 1981), p. 31.

25Paul Thomas Young, "Feeling and Emotion," in Handbook of General Psychology, ed. Benjamin B. Wolman (Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1973), pp. 749-771.

26Rudolf E. Radocy and J. David Boyle, Psychological Foundations of Musical Behavior (Springfield, Illinois: Charles C. Thomas, Publisher, 1979), pp. 190-206.

27Sears, "Processes in Music Therapy," pp. 36-37.

28American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd ed. (Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association, 1980), p. 217.

29Ibid., p. 216.

30Ibid.

31Radocy and Boyle, Psychological Foundations, pp. 195-203.

32E. Thayer Gaston, "Dynamic Music Factors in Mood Change," Music Educators Journal 37 (February-March 1951), 42-43.

33Leo Shatin, "Alteration of Mood via Music: A Study of the Vectoring Effect," Journal of Psychology 75 (May 1970), 81-86.

34George D. Lovell and John J.B. Morgan, "Physiological and Motor Responses to a Regularly Recurring Sound: A Study in Monotony," Journal of Experimental Psychology 30 (June 1942), 435-451.

35Charles L. Darner, "Sound Pulses and the Heart," Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 39 (February 1966), 414-416.

36Barbara B. Brown, Supermind: The Ultimate Energy (New York: Harper & Publishers, 1980), p. 68.

37Grace Malcolm, "Effect of Rhythm on Heart Rates of Musicians" (Masters thesis, The University of Kansas, 1981).

38B. Everard Blanchard, "The Effect of Music on Pulse-Rate, Blood-Pressure, and Final Exam Scores of University Students," The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 19 (September 1979), 305-308.

39Olga Marta Ruiz, "Effects of Music on Heart Rate" (Masters thesis, The University of Kansas, 1979).

40Ida H. Hyde, "Effects of Music upon Electrocardiograms and Blood Pressure," Journal of Experimental Psychology 7 (February 1924), 213-224.

41Douglas S. Ellis and Gilbert Brighouse, "Effects of Music on Respiration and Heart-Rate," American Journal of Psychology 65 (January 1952), 39-47; Harold A. Ries, "GSR and Breathing Amplitude Related to Emotional Reactions to Music," Psychonomic Science 14 (January 1969), 62-64; L. Demling, M. Tzschoppe and M. Classen "The Effect of Various Types of Music on the Secretory Function of the Stomach," American Journal of Digestive Diseases, New Series 15 (January 1970), 15-20; and Mels A. DeJong, K.R. van Mourik and H.M.C. Schellekens, "A Physiological Approach to Aesthetic Preference," Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics 33 (1973), 46-51.

42Walter M. Coleman, "On the Correlation of the Heart Beat, Breathing, Bodily Movement and Sensory Stimuli," Journal of Physiology 54 (December 1920), 213-217; Hyde, "Effects of Music," pp. 213-224; Lovell and Morgan, "Physiological and Motor Responses," pp. 435-451; Ruiz, "Effect of Music on Heart Rate."

43Ellis and Brighouse, "Effects of Music," pp. 39-47.

44Donald M. Johnson and MacIldin Trawick, "Influence of Rhythmic Sensory Stimuli upon the Heart Rate," Journal of Psychology 6 (1938); 303-310; George H. Zimny and Edward W. Weidenfeller, "Effects of Music upon GSR and Heart-Rate," American Journal of Psychology 76 (June 1963), 311-314.

45Virginia M. Wilson, "Variations in Gastric Motility to Musical Stimuli," in Music in Therapy 1956, ed. E. Thayer Gaston (Lawrence, Kansas: Allen Press, 1957), pp. 243-249.

46Demling, Tzschoppe, and Classen, "The Effect of Various Types of Music," pp. 15-20.

47Forrest E. Slaughter, "The Effect of Stimulative and Sedative Music on Normal and Abnormal Subjects as Indicated by Pupilary Reflexes" (Masters thesis, The University of Kansas, 1954).

48Donald C. Schrift, "The Galvanic Skin Response to Two Contrasting Types of Music" (Masters thesis, The University of Kansas, 1954).

49William W. Sears, "A Study of Some Effects of Music upon Muscle Tension as Evidenced by Electromyographic Recordings" (Doctoral dissertation, The University of Kansas, 1959).

50Carol A. Smith and Leey W. Morris, "Effects of Stimulative and Sedative Music on Cognitive and Emotional Components of Anxiety," Psychological Reports 38 (June 1976), 1187-1193; and (same authors), "Differential Effects of Stimulative and Sedative Music on Anxiety, Concentration, and Performance," Psychological Reports 41 (December 1977), 1047-1053.

51Robert E. Dreher, "The Relationship Between Verbal Reports and Galvanic Skin Response," American Psychologist 3 (May 1948), 275-276; Wilson, "Variations in Gastric Motility," 243-249; William W. Sears, "The Effect of Music on Muscle Tonus," in Music Therapy 1957, ed. E. Thayer Gaston (Lawrence, Kansas: Allen Press, 1958), pp. 199-205; DeJong, van Mourik and Schelkens, "A Physiological Response," pp. 46-51; and Peter O. Peretti, "Changes in Galvanic Skin Response as Affected by Musical Selection, Sex, and Academic Discipline," Journal of Psychology 89 (March 1975), 183-187.

52Sears, "The Effect of Music on Muscle Tonus," p. 204.

53Wilson, "Variations in Gastric Motility," pp. 243-249; Sears, "The Effect of Music on Muscle Tonus," p. 204; Peretti, "Changes in Galvanic Skin Response," pp. 183-187.

54Dale B. Taylor, "Subject Responses to Precategorized Stimulative and Sedative Music" (Masters thesis, The University of Kansas, 1970).

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