When analyzing challenging texted art music, all too often the act of labeling a concept (for example, “common-tone modulation”) can mislead students into thinking that the label is the end of the story. Several factors, such as difficulty in identifying concepts that are new to them, possibly foreign text, and esoteric poetry, contribute to students’ reluctance to form interpretations of meaning. Discussing musical meaning first with music that is more familiar, such as popular music, will help them appreciate deeper meanings in texted art music.

This paper considers the generation of meaning from two sources: voice-leading factors and the key scheme. The songs chosen represent topics—non-resolution of tendency tones, the reciprocal process, meaning in the key scheme, and common-tone mediant modulations—typically taught near the end of an undergraduate music theory sequence. The non-resolution of tendency tones plays a large role in the creation of musical meaning. The Beatles’s “Please Please Me” exploits the avoidance of leading tone to tonic voice leading to produce different meanings. Blondie’s “Dreaming” introduces the reciprocal process. The Rays’s “Silhouettes” presents a pop-song modulation, while Ray Charles’s “That Lucky Old Sun” contains a common-tone modulation; both modulations are closely associated with the lyrics. Examples from art music, especially Schubert’s Sehnsucht, D. 310, are considered as well. Once the students apply the concept of musical meaning to more stylistically familiar music, they become more receptive to the analysis of meaning in the perhaps less familiar art music repertoire.

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Last modified on Friday, 03/04/2020

Carissa Reddick

Carissa Reddick serves as the head of the music theory area and the Graduate Coordinator for the School of Music at the University of Northern Colorado. Her articles appear in Music Theory Online, the e-journal of Music Theory Pedagogy, and most recently in the Journal of the American Liszt Society. She has presented papers on form in late nineteenth-century music at EuroMAC 8 and at various conferences throughout the United States. She is a former president of the Rocky Mountain Society for Music Theory. She holds a Ph.D. in Music Theory and History from the University of Connecticut and a Master's of Music in music theory and in cello performance from The Hartt School at the University of Hartford.

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