Johann Wilhelm Hertel (1727-1789): A 250th Birthday Tribute

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Applied music teachers are continually faced with the problem of finding for their intermediate students materials from the classical period which combine substantial musical content with limited technical demands. The music of J.W. Hertel assists admirably in solving this problem. Many of his works, originally written for eighteenth-century amateur musicians, are ideally suited to today's less advanced student. The sonatas and concertos for keyboard are excellent materials with which to introduce the student to classical music. The author is preparing editions of some of the keyboard concertos.

This paper was made possible by a Fellowship in Residence for College Teachers from the National Endowment for the Humanities.

In the process of defining musical periods and recognizing their characteristic styles and structures, the inherent value and unique qualities of transitional stages may be either overlooked or underestimated. If one is to appreciate the chain of events in music history, one must acknowledge the links in that chain. The music of the third quarter of the eighteenth century—a link between the baroque and classical periods—is an example of a body of works which remains largely unknown and undervalued—regarded only as a primitive ancestor of classical music. Yet the music of this period was certainly highly esteemed by contemporaries, and is worthy now of exploration (and of publication)! The significance of this music should be measured not only by the importance given it in its own time, but also by its ability to reveal transitional stages in structural and stylistic changes.

The musical figures of the time are, of course, as relatively unknown as the music. Johann Wilhelm Hertel (1727-1789), one of the substantial number of composers of the pre-classical generation, was a fascinating character whose acquaintances ranged from C.P.E. Bach and Telemann, to Voltaire and Gotthold Lessing. Hertel was himself a highly educated man of broad interests and varied experiences. His prolific output includes vocal and instrumental compositions, theoretical works, translations of Italian and French writings on opera, and an autobiography. The autobiography reveals many significant insights on performers, performance practice, and stylistic changes of the time. It also acquaints us with Hertel's own carefully considered view of the art of composition, the proper training of a musician, and the musical and non-musical influences which shaped his life and work.

Although Hertel is not a widely known figure today, he was highly regarded by his contemporaries, both as a keyboard player and as a composer. Ernst Ludwig Gerber, in his Historische Biographische Lexicon der Tonkunstler, called him a virtuoso of the keyboard and placed him among the best German composers of the third quarter of the century. His keyboard artistry was cited also by J.N. Forkel in his Musikalischer Almanach für Deutschland.1

It is not surprising that Hertel tended toward a musical career early in his life. His paternal grandfather, Jakob Christian Hertel, had been Kapellmeister at the Göttingen court in Swabia from about 1667 to the end of the century and had later held the same position at Merseburg in Saxony.2 Hertel's father, Johann Christian Hertel (1698-1754), Konzertmeister of the Eisenach Kapelle from 1733 to 1741 and of the Mecklenburg-Strelitz Kapelle from 1741 to 1753, was well known in his day as a gamba virtuoso who made frequent trips to a number of courts as guest soloist.3 The young Hertel's profession was not a foregone conclusion, for his father envisioned for him a career in the law as a possible alternative to music, while his mother wanted him to become a Lutheran minister like her father. As a result, the decision was delayed, with the fortunate consequence that Hertel received the best possible education in order to prepare him for whichever path he would choose to follow.

His early musical training began with his father and continued with keyboard instruction under J.H. Heil, harpsichordist and violinist in the Eisenach Hofkapelle. According to Hertel, Heil had been a student of J.S. Bach.4 Between the ages of ten and fourteen, Hertel attended the renowned Eisenach Gymnasium, studying classical Latin and Greek, mathematics, history, logic, and theology. The broad interests which informed Hertel's early education were to expand throughout his lifetime. He strongly believed that a musician should acquire a solid background, not only in the theory and practice of music, but also in the humanities. His own library at the time of his death contained some 1200 volumes—books in German, Italian, French, and Latin—on music theory, poetry, drama, philosophy, history, law, economics, languages, medicine, and travel.5

The Eisenach Hofkapelle was dissolved in the spring of 1742, and the Hertel family moved to Neustrelitz, where Hertel's father had secured the position as Konzertmeister on the recommendation of his friend, Franz Benda, violinist at the court of Friedrich the Great in Berlin and one of the leading violinists in Germany. Hertel's education continued that summer with tutoring in logic, morals, and natural law by Christian August Wolf (1679-1754).6 Wolf was a philosopher at the University of Halle, and is famous as the foremost German exponent of the Enlightenment.

In discussing his formative years, Hertel emphasized the significance of the Austrian Karl Hoeckh (1707-1773), a close friend of Hertel's father, and Konzertmeister at the Zerbst court.7 Hertel lived at the court as Hoeckh's apprentice from 1742 to 1745. Their relationship, as Hertel described it, resembled that of father and son. Hertel's lengthy tribute to Hoeckh, as both man and musician, acknowledged the tremendous influence of Hoeckh in his life, both musically and personally.

During his apprenticeship in Zerbst, Hertel continued his academic studies first at the Bartholomauschule for a short period, and then at the Zerbst Gymnasium. At this point he had not yet decided on a career in music and was in fact tending toward the law.8

In 1745 Hertel's father requested that he return to Neustrelitz for a brief stay before going to Leipzig to study law. The trip home was a fateful one: during a short visit in Berlin he was to meet C.P.E. Bach. Hertel had stopped in Berlin for a few days to see Franz Benda, to whom he had been recommended by Hoeckh. Benda was impressed with Hertel's playing and praised his bowing technique in particular. At a concert in Benda's home, Hertel heard the three Benda brothers, violinists Franz, Georg, and Joseph, the Italian singer "Paolino," and C.P.E. Bach. In his autobiography he described the experience of the concert and in particular the performance of Bach, saying that it had such a powerful effect on him that he wavered in his decision to make law his career. Upon his return to Neustrelitz the Superintendent of Court Affairs, Baron von Altrock, urged Hertel to join the Hofkapelle of Duke Adolph Friedrich III. After several days of painful indecision Hertel accepted the post at Neustrelitz. He thus embarked on his musical career at the age of seventeen, but he continued his academic studies in the event that he might later regret his choice.

At Neustrelitz there was a stimulating musical life and Hertel took full advantage of it. The frequent concerts by the best virtuosi of the Berlin Kapelle gave an additional impetus to Hertel's already strong determination to perfect himself in everything pertaining to music. He purchased and studied "the latest compositions" for the violin and for the clavier and spent his nights examining "the best theoretical writings."9 His earliest known compositions stemmed from this period under the critical direction of his father.

Hertel's conception of the art of composition, as stated in his autobiography, reflects his broad view of the musical craft:

Here he found only too soon that principally it is bountiful nature which must produce the first aptitude for an able composer and must give that which Horace referred to as "deum in nobis"; in addition much thought and arduously protracted study is demanded; that nature without industry produces nothing but a wild vine, but industry without nature only a forced, dry fruit; that without either, one would be happier with a cobbler's knife and last, than with the art of composition; and finally, that only he who combines persistent industry with a fine talent and a mind trained by the sciences, a soul full of emotion, and he who seizes the right opportunity to gain momentum, can hope to gain honor in this pursuit. Admittedly, many things are demanded; granted also that this is the reason for so many incompetent [composers] when these qualities are not present. Their lack cannot be compensated by travel, familiarity with a great amount of music, or the polish of a well-mannered, refined gentleman.10

Hertel goes on to stress the necessity of the knowledge of both the humanities and sciences, in addition to a solid foundation in all aspects of. harmony, ornamentation, thoroughbass, and Affektenlehre.11 In addition, a composer of vocal music must have a knowledge of melody, poetry, philosophy, and declamation, and a complete insight into the language of the text. Hertel put into practice what he preached about composition by rewriting his own compositions as many as ten times.

Hertel was eager to absorb all he could of Berlin's musical life, and in 1747 he requested a year's leave of absence to further his studies with the musicians at the court of Friedrich the Great. The autobiography contains colorful accounts of Hertel's musical experiences during that year and during his subsequent visits to the Berlin court, where he was completely enthralled by the famous singers and the fine precision and balance of the orchestra. He stated that the Berlin Kapelle was one of the most brilliant in Germany at the time, second only to that of Dresden in vocal and instrumental soloists and outstanding composers. Hertel's descriptions of the vocal technique, personality and character of the court musicians—particularly of the castrati and female opera singers—are vivid and entertaining.12 While in Berlin Hertel's musical studies continued—violin with Franz Benda, composition with Karl Heinrich Graun, and cembalo with C.P.E. Bach.

During the year in Berlin, Hertel was exposed also to some of the most fascinating nonmusical figures of his time, including the great philosopher Voltaire. Among other distinguished members of Friedrich's circle with whom Hertel became acquainted were Maupertois, the scientist; Marquis Jean-Baptiste d'Argens, the philosopher; and Algarotti, an influential figure in opera reform. Hertel continued throughout his lifetime to associate not only with musicians, but with men of the humanities and sciences as well. Some of the most noteworthy of these included: Gotthold Lessing, poet, dramatist and great literary exponent of the Enlightenment; Karl Wilhelm Ramler, poet of famous cantata texts, especially known for Graun's "Der Tod Jesu"; Johann Georg Sulzer, aesthetician and author of the four-volume Allgemeine Theorie der schönen Kunste; and Christian Gottfried Krause, theoretician, composer, and author of Von der Musicalischen Poesie. Hertel also developed a close relationship with the French aristocrat Isaac von Chasot, top commanding officer of Friedrich's royal Prussian cavalry regiment. The two men had a common interest in music and the arts; Chasot was a fine flutist, and Hertel wrote several flute concertos and two theoretical works for him.

An important event in Hertel's life was the installation of two new Silbermann pianos at the Neustrelitz court in 1750. Hertel was delighted with these instruments and from that time preferred the piano to the other keyboard instruments, unlike most of the north German composers (including the Bachs), who preferred the clavichord. In his autobiography he noted that as a result of working with the pianos at Neustrelitz, he developed a technique which enabled him to deal effectively with any keyboard instrument. Hertel's observation regarding the finger strength and touch necessary for the piano is significant, because the north German musicians were generally indifferent to the distinct dissimilarities in touch between the piano and its predecessors.13

Due to failing eyesight, Hertel's father became unable to function as Konzertmeister at Neustrelitz; and from the Fall of 1750 to the death of Duke Adolph Friedrich in 1752, the younger Hertel was in charge of concerts at the court. The widowed duchess retained Hertel and a few members of the Kapelle, taking them with her to Schwerin where they joined forces with the Kapelle of Duke Christian Ludwig (born 1683, ruled 1747-1756). The duke and his whole family were accomplished amateur musicians, and their influence on the musical life of the court was inestimable. The duke's son, Prince Ludwig, was a fine violinist and maintained his own small Kapelle and his own chamber music concerts, for which he drew a special subsidy.14

In the Spring of 1754, Hertel was employed by Duke Christian Ludwig of Schwerin as court composer, a position which ranked just below that of Superintendent of Court Affairs and above the rest of the Kapelle. Schwerin's Kapellmeister, Karl Adolph Kunzen (1720-1781), had left shortly before; and Hertel now functioned as Kapellmeister, although he was never given that title.15 About this time Hertel gave up playing the violin and devoted all of his time to composing and performing on the clavier. The first year as court composer in Schwerin was a prolific one; Hertel wrote much instrumental music and eight large cantatas ("Sing-Gedichte").16

The style of Hertel's compositions up to this time had been influenced largely by that of two leading German composers of the time, Johann Hasse and Karl H. Graun. The death of Duke Christian Ludwig in May 1756 was to result indirectly in Hertel's assimilation of the Italian styles of Pergolesi and Jommelli, for the duke's son and successor, Friedrich "the Pious" (born 1717, ruled 1756-1785), was especially fond of the music of these two composers. He had known Jommelli personally in Stuttgart where Jommelli was Kapellmeister to the Duke of Württemburg. Because of Duke Friedrich's preference for the music of these Italians, Hertel began a thorough study of their compositions. The result was a fusing of his earlier style—essentially German—with the Italian influence. Hertel was apparently pleased with the outcome—the development of a unique style which he says he found no reason to change thereafter.17

In 1757 Schwerin became involved in the Seven Years' War, siding with Austria; the Prussians marched against Mecklenburg but without a formal declaration of war. During the next five years the duke moved his court to Hamburg, Lübeck, and Altona. Only his great love for music explains why the duke retained most of his musicians during this period; they had little or nothing to do and were permitted to go wherever they could find work.

The war years were productive ones for Hertel. He remained at Schwerin for a time, studying, composing, and writing. From this period date his German translations of Italian and French essays on opera. The two volumes of Sammlung musikalischer Schriften . . . , with critical commentary, were published by Breitkopf in Leipzig in 1757 and 1758. Other published works from this time are two sets of Oden und Lieder on texts of Johann Friedrich Löwen, the first published by Breitkopf in 1757, the second by Koppe in Rostock, 1760.

From 1759 to 1760 Hertel was employed as organist and cantor at the church of St. Nicolai in Stralsund and also held the same position at the church of St. Marien. Although Hertel's autobiography supplies various reasons for leaving the post at St. Nicolai, recent research has revealed another reason: he was in fact relieved of his duties because his background as a court musician had not prepared him to fill the position as cantor and organist.18

Hertel also spent some time during the war with his friend Chasot, then commander of the troops of the free city of Lübeck. While in Lübeck, Hertel became acquainted with Karl Adolph Kunzen, former Kapellmeister at Schwerin. Kunzen had been a child prodigy whose clavier playing had created a sensation in Holland and England. Hertel was impressed with Kunzen's fine performance, commenting however that it was "not in the Bach manner."19 Except for his keyboard sonatas, Kunzen's compositions were characterized by Hertel as somewhat in the style of Telemann—the early "galant" style, which Hertel at this time considered already antiquated.20

In August of 1761, Hertel and all the Schwerin musicians were called to Neustrelitz to assist in the month-long festivities attendant to the marriage of Princess Sophie Charlotte (1744-1811) to King George III of England. For the wedding (September 8, 1761) Hertel composed a "Schaferspiel" on Metastasio's "Il Vero Omaggio" which he "made to fit the happy occasion," adding a French translation to the Italian text.21 The sinfonia from this work achieved unprecedented popularity: one music copyist claimed that he alone had to fill one hundred and eighty requests for the work in a single season.22

When peace finally came to Schwerin in 1762, after five years' involvement in the war, the duke, his court and the Kapelle were able to return to normal routine, and musical activities were resumed. Duke Friedrich "the Pious" was especially interested in sacred music and sponsored sacred concerts two evenings a week. These were held in church in the summer months and in the castle during the winter season and were of such quality that the sacred music of the Schwerin court became known and admired throughout northern Germany.23 Hertel's chorale cantatas written for these concerts have been evaluated by Erich Schenk as the most original contribution of Mecklenburg in the field of music.24

As early as 1764 Hertel had considered giving up his position as court composer and retiring to the country for reasons of health. At this time he gave much of his music library to Prince Ludwig, retaining the keyboard works of C.P.E. Bach and some of the best known vocal works of the time.25 But before Hertel was able to realize his plan to retire, he was asked to fill the vacant post of Secretary to Princess Ulrike. He accepted the assignment, keeping his position in the Kapelle as well.

The decision to accept employment with Princess Ulrike was timely, for while with the Princess in Hamburg in 1765, Hertel had the joy of visiting the eighty-four-year-old Georg Philipp Telemann (1681-1767), an old friend of his father's. Hertel had anticipated a friendly exchange of ideas, but the old master led him into such a learned discussion on theory and composition that he soon began to feel as though he were being given an examination. In his account of this meeting, Hertel commented wryly that when the conversation took this course he felt compelled to redirect it toward the contemporary "more refined taste" and in the end earned the respect of the redoubtable Telemann.26

Not long after this, Duke Friedrich transferred the Hofkapelle to Ludwigslust, and Hertel was finally relieved of his duties as court composer. He remained in Schwerin in the service of Princess Ulrike, arranged concerts for the nobility, and served as a tutor in clavier. From time to time he went to Ludwigslust to conduct his sacred cantatas commissioned by the duke.

Hertel's connection with the German National Theatre in Hamburg dated from around this time, according to Gotthold Lessing.27 In 1767 Hertel wrote incidental music for the Hamburg Theatre production of Chronegk's Olint und Sophronia produced by Lessing, and entr'acte symphonies to Weise's Richard III and Löwen's comedy, Das Rathsel.

The autobiography contains very few references to events of a personal nature. Most of the intimate details of Hertel's life are a matter of conjecture. We know that Hertel remained single until he was forty-one, when he married one of his clavier students, Sophie Emilie von Wurms, age twenty-six, lady-in-waiting to Princess Charlotte. In 1770, a year after the marriage, Hertel was named Court Councillor.

Hertel and his wife separated in 1783, but no reasons are given in the autobiography. Hertel says only that certain circumstances caused him to be separated from his wife after twelve happy years together.28 Hertel regarded the separation as a personal tragedy.

Until now the paths of our Hertel were without sorrow, flowing along in calmness, peace and enjoyment, like a quiet brook, but now he had to experience grief also; to know that the pilgrimage of man does not always take place on paths of roses and jasmine, but also among thorns and thistles, over mountains and cliffs, so that he should rightly appreciate the greatness and contentment Providence had given him, and learn how to endure suffering with patience and steadfastness.29

With this flowery introduction Hertel refers to the period of sorrow in his life. The deaths of his son, mother, sister, and "greatest patron," Prince Ludwig, had caused him much sadness, but his deepest grief was felt in the tragedy of his marriage, precipitating a nervous breakdown in 1782. In spite of his illness, Hertel composed a number of sacred cantatas on the life and passion of Christ.30

The sacred cantatas are the work of a man of faith, who turned in personal tragedy to the discipline of art, addressing his energy to works of religious faith. Though truly a man of the Enlightenment, Hertel was a devout Lutheran; he did not endorse the anti-religious tendencies of the Enlightenment, but again and again emphasized his belief in the existence of God and in God's power in the world and in the individual.

Six years before Hertel's death, Johann Christian Koppe, son of the Rostock publisher, recognized his stature as a distinguished Mecklenburg personage. Koppe was collecting autobiographies of famous Mecklenburg residents for publication, particularly theologians, lawyers, and scholars. He requested Hertel and one other musician (Christian Fischer of Gustrow) to contribute to the collection.

Hertel's autobiography exists in three versions: 1) that written for Koppe's edition of 1784, which was drastically cut and distorted by the editor,31 2) the second edition of 1806 which embodied corrections of the first and included a six-page listing of Hertel's works,32 and 3) a new version for a projected continuation of Hiller's Lebensbeschreibungen berühmter Musikgelehrten und Tonkunstler neuer Zeit33 which never materialized. From the three manuscript copies in the Bibliothèque Royal Albert Ier of Brussels,34 Erich Schenk edited the first complete printed version of Hertel's autobiography with extensive commentary. Hertel's Werksverzeichnis is found at the end of the autobiography.

Neither the Werksverzeichnis nor the long list of Hertel's compositions in Eitner and in MGG constitute a complete record of the extant works.35 The libraries in Brussels and Schwerin contain about 45 symphonies and 48 concerti (15 keyboard, 10 oboe, 9 violin, 2 violoncello, 3 each for flute, trumpet and bassoon, 1 organ, a double-concerto for trumpet and oboe, and a "Concerto à Cinque" for trumpet, two oboes and two bassoons). There are also 29 keyboard sonatas, 17 violin sonatas with continuo, a sonata for two horns and two bassoons without continuo, 6 trios (3 for harp [or cembalo], violin [or flute] and cello; 1 for flute, violin and bass; 1 for two violins [or flutes] and bass; and 1 for oboe, flute and organ), and 3 Partite for organ and oboe obbligato. In the field of vocal music, the extant works include sacred and secular cantatas, Lieder, Italian arias, German Chorales and psalm settings.

Hertel's contribution to German Lieder is recorded in Rentzow, Die Mecklenburgische Liederkomponisten des 18. Jahrhunderts.36 My study on "The Keyboard Concertos of Johann Wilhelm Hertel"37 reveals his importance for the early classic keyboard concerto. Also worth exploring are Hertel's keyboard sonatas, symphonies, and sacred cantatas. A cognate opportunity presents itself to the translator: Hertel's autobiography contains not only the record of an interesting musical figure, but also a detailed picture of the social and cultural conditions of his time.

At present Hertel's music is undergoing a rediscovery. A number of his works are available in modern editions. Those who are not deaf to the intimate art of the early classic period, who have not been spoiled by romantic grandiosity or contemporary complexities, who can listen with the ears of Hertel's first audiences, will be able to recapture that initial joy and enthusiasm for the music which so well represents the period of transition in which he worked.


1Ernst Ludwig Gerber, Historische Biographische Lexicon der Tonkunstler (Leipzig: Breitkopf, 1790-1792), 629-630; J.N. Forkel, Musikalischer Almanach für Deutschland (Leipzig: Schwickert, 1782). References to Hertel: 64-65, 116; (1783 publication), 41, 97; (1784), 151; (1789), 78.

2Johann Wilhelm Hertel, "Leben Johann Christian Hertels ehemaligen Concertmeister am Sachsen-Eisenachen und Mecklenburg-Strelitzischen Hofe," in Friedrich Wilhelm Marpurg, Historisch-kritische beyträge zur Aufnahme der Musik (Berlin: G.A. Lange, 1754-1758), III, 46.

3Ibid., pp. 46-64.

4Johann Wilhelm Hertel, Autobiographie, ed. with commentary by Erich Schenk (Graz-Cologne: Herman Bohlaus, 1957), p. 12.

5Verzeichnis of books and scores in Hertel's library, 1789. Cf. Fetis, Catalogue de la Bibliothèque Royal Albert Ier, Brussels, item 5177.

6Hertel, Autobiographie, p. 15.

7Hoeckh is considered by Erich Schenk as one of the most important instrumental composers of the pre-classic era in northern Germany, fusing the Italo-Austrian style with that of northern Germany.

8Autobiographie, p. 20. It was evidently not rare for musicians to study law, judging from the cases of Schütz, Kuhnau, Mattheson, Handel, Telemann and C.P.E. Bach.

9Ibid., p. 27.

10Translation from Autobiographie, p. 28.

11Ibid., pp. 32-33.

12Cf. especially Hertel's account of Salimbeni's "swan song," Autobiographie, p. 64, "Anmerkungen" IX.

13Cf. Carl Parrish, "The Early Piano and Its Influence on Keyboard Technique and Composition in the Eighteenth Century," unpublished doctoral dissertation (Harvard, 1939), p. 96.

14Clemens Meyer, Geschichte der Mecklenburg-Schweriner Hofkapelle . . . von Anfang des 16. Jahrhunderts bis zur Gegenwart (Schwerin: Ludwig David, 1913), p. 52. Also included is an inventory of Duke Christian Ludwig's instrumental collection which lists the following: 4 violins, 2 violas, a large violon, 3 lutes, a bandoline, a David's harp, a large collection of flutes (41 in all), 2 waldhorns with 16 extra crooks, a copper timpani, a "strohfidel," a Silbermann pianoforte, 2 claviers and 3 zittern.

15Ibid., p. 73.

16Cf. Hertel's secular cantatas from this period in the catalogue of Hertel's works at the end of the Autobiographie. According to Reinhard Diekow of Schwerin, Hertel's dating of these cantatas in his Werksverzeichnis is inaccurate.

17Autobiographie, p. 47.

18Hans Engel, Stralsunder Musikleben um 1760, p. 205, cited in Schenk, "Anmerkungen," Hertel, Autobiographie, p. 98.

19Autobiographie, p. 50.

20Ibid.

21Ibid., p. 51.

22Ibid. Copies of this symphony: Brussels Bibliothèque du Conservatoire Royal de Musique, No. 7678; Schwerin, No. 2726; Library of Congress, M1001.H565-Case. It has been recorded on Mace SM9021, but the producers were unaware of its historical connection.

23Carl Friedrich Cramer (hrsg.), Magazin der Musik, I (May 1783), 591. Cramer notes that members of the nobility who were trained in music took part in these sacred concerts.

24Schenk, "Anmerkungen" in Hertel, Autobiographie, p. 103. Schenk suggests the need for research on the relationship of the Mecklenburg cantatas with the Herder reforms and with those of the Catholics in Austria.

25Autobiographie, p. 53. The catalogue of Hertel's library published in 1789, the year of his death, includes Hasse's operas: Adriano in Syria, Olimpiade, Tito, Pellegrini al sepolcro, and Alcide al Bivio; Graun's Te Deum and Der Tod Jesu; J.S. Bach's Choral-Gesang, Part I; 19 keyboard sonatas and 11 keyboard concertos of C.P.E. Bach; 6 clavier suites of Handel; and 2 sets of clavier pieces by Benda.

26Ibid., p. 54.

27Lessings Werk (Stuttgart: Goschen, 1874), VI, 124.

28Autobiographie, p. 57. According to the records Hertel and his wife had two sons and a daughter. That Hertel never recognized his wife's third child as his son is evident from the reference in his autobiography to Johann Christian as his "only son" (p. 57), and suggests the cause of the separation. Cf. Schenk, "Anmerkungen" in Hertel, Autobiographie, p. 105.

29Translation from Autobiographie, pp. 56-57.

30Cf. Sacred vocal works in listing of Hertel's works, loc. cit.

31Jetzt lebendes gelehrtes Mecklenburg (Rostock and Leipzig: 1784). Cf. Schenk, "Einleitung," in Hertel, Autobiographie, p. 2.

32Ibid., p. 4.

33(Leipzig: Dykische Buchhandlung, 1784).

34These Mss along with other Hertel works in the same library and in the Bibliothèque du Conservatoire Royal de Musique were originally in the possession of the Mecklenburg organist and avid music collector, Johann Jakob Westphal. (Vander Linden, in MGG, gives his dates as c. 1760—c. 1835.) Westphal's C.P.E. Bach collection and thematic index were the basis for Wotquenne's catalogue of Bach's works.

35Robert Eitner, Biographisch-Bibliographisches Quellon-Lexikon . . . (Leipzig: Breitkopf and Härtel, 1899), V, 128-130. Willi Kahl's list in MGG, VI, 286, is based solely on the Kade catalogue of the Schwerin library which, according to the most recent research by Reinhard Diekow of Schwerin, is inaccurate.

36(Hannover: Nagel, 1938.)

37Sister Romana Hertel, unpublished doctoral dissertation (The Catholic University of America, 1964).

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