There is a greater need than pianoforte teachers and singing teachers, and that is a numerous company of writers and talkers who shall teach the people how to listen to music so that it shall not pass through their heads like a vast tonal phantasmagoria, but provide the varied and noble delights contemplated by the composers.

Henry Krehbiel, How to Listen to Music (1896)

American higher education has responded enthusiastically to Krehbiel's alarum of 1896, employing a "numerous company of writers and talkers" on music by including music study in the general curriculum, largely in the name of musica humana. The principal vehicle of their faith that this inner harmony of being can somehow be transmitted through the study of musica instrumentalis is the Introduction to Music Literature class. The music unit on campus sees that same course more pragmatically as the bread-and-butter offering that subsidizes the more expensive specialized work in music and encourages, or requires, student attendance at concerts. Pity the poor faculty member thrust into a classroom with orders to serve both masters: instill a love and understanding of this most abstract art in the students while generating the largest possible number of credit-hours. Assuming that he has the materials (he frequently does not), the training (he may be the bassoonist with hours "left over"), and the desire (or at least the compliance) to fulfill this assignment, he is then faced with an immense swath of time and space to cover (giving special attention, of course, to ethnic contributions and contemporary developments), sometimes in a single semester. On this impossible mission it is often the teacher who self-destructs.

There is no other college course that aims so high while dealing with such heterogeneously prepared students. In one seat is a senior history major who plays string quartets at home and next to him a freshman with no musical experience at all. Here sits a competent pianist, there a self-taught marching band drummer to whom notation is a mystery. They are in class because of their deep love for music or for an easy credit, having been brought by their intellectual curiosity or their curriculum requirements. For whatever reason, and with whatever background, they have come to gain "appreciation" of music, and teaching it is the most demanding job in the music department.

Teaching the amateur how to approach music is not in itself a new idea. Baldassare Castiglione's Il Cortegiano of 1528 and Thomas Morley's Plaine and Easie Introduction to the Skill of Musick of 1597 both recognized the need for some musical knowledge as a social grace. Laetitia Hawkins, in her Anecdotes, tells of the "theoretic lectures on music" of Marmaduke Overend in eighteenth-century England, and William Alexander Barrett, music critic of the London Morning Post, was a popular lecturer on music in that same city a century later, under the auspices of The Society for the Extension of University Teaching. According to Edmund Jeffers,1 Frederic Louis Ritter introduced "lectures on the history of music . . . illustrated by . . . distinguished artists," at Vassar College as early as 1868. The lectures of Apthorp in Boston and the long success of Dwight's Journal and other publications of that type helped to feed a surprisingly large market for musical knowledge. This reached a peak in the 1880's, which saw the publication of Amy Fay's Music Study in Germany (1880) and Ritter's Music in America (1884), to cite only two important landmarks.

Credit for the first music appreciation text in this country, though, belongs to the pianist and music journalist William Smythe Babcock Mathews, who published a two-volume work in 1880 under the title, How to Understand Music: A Concise Course in Musical Intelligence and Taste.2 The next important American contribution to the field was Henry Krehbiel's How To Listen to Music of 1896, which was so popular that it went through nine printings before 1900, and innumerably more after. Having created the audience as an entity, it was now necessary to train it, an approach that was reflected by Mathews, who wrote in his preface, "[The] prime object is to lead the student to a consciousness of music as MUSIC [emphasis original], and not merely as playing, singing, or theory." It was Krehbiel, with the keen teacher's sense so evident in his music criticism, who warned against writers so pedantic as to be concerned only with forms and rules, or on the other hand, "Rhapsodists," who "present themselves as persons of exquisite sensibilities rather than direct attention to the real nature and beauty of the music itself."3 The pedants were not harmful, he felt, since they were dull and wrote only for their professional colleagues.

Things have not changed too much in the interim, and the guidelines of the 1880's are still valid. Technological change and the increase in the size of the college community, however, have introduced new factors that we are still grappling with. The invention of the phonograph and the radio spurred public awareness and publishing activity after the turn of the century, ranging from William Lines Hubbard's American History and Encyclopedia of Music (Toledo: I. Squire, 1908-10) to Calvin Brainerd Cady's Music Appreciation with the Victrola for Children put out in 1923 by the educational department of the Victor Talking Machine Company.

While "Music Appreciation," the term so much in vogue a generation or so ago, carried the implication that the goal of the course was affective, more recent attitudes have emphasized cognitive learning (a "content" course, as the students say) on the grounds that lasting affective values only grow on a base of solid knowledge. This change may also have been influenced by the pressure to quantify course material over the last fifteen or twenty years, in part to be able to assign more "objective" grades. The atmosphere has changed, though, and some re-evaluation is going to be called for in the near future, if it is not under way already. The raison d'être of this class looks increasingly suspect in the pragmatic, anti-intellectual climate of American society today. If cultivation of the esthetic sense was once generally endorsed as evidence of gentility, it is now generally abhorred as "elitist". Since music apparently adds little of material value to life, and more importantly, bears no relationship to "work", it is classed with bowling as a leisure activity to occupy time left over from the business of living. Furthermore, music is readily available to all as a packaged commodity and no significant benefits seem to accrue to those who "understand" it as opposed to those who merely "like" it.

If the present trend continues, as it shows every evidence of doing, it is not inconceivable that the appreciation of music could go the direction of the appreciation of Greek and Latin poetry. Whether that is good or bad, whether we must change the courses, their rationale, or neither, whether, indeed, such study should be urged on the general college student, and whether it serves any function for the individual or for societythese have suddenly, and a little frighteningly, become pressing questions. The positions taken, the courses taught, and the textbooks used are now matters of general academic concern, not personal preference alone. If we believe in the validity of what we are doing, we must be prepared to justify it very soon in a way that would have been unthinkable a mere five years ago.

On the plus side of the ledger, the standards of scholarship and language in teaching materials for these courses have been steadily rising, and the near-universality of the college music literature program is still a fact. Against that background, then, this article is an attempt to gain an overview of the books published for such use in the past 10-12 years. Those covered in the survey represent almost, but not quite, all of these publications. They fall into four identifiable groups, allowing for a certain amount of overlap and oversimplification: Historical, Structural, Humanities, and Skills. It is recognized, of course, that some instructors broaden their course by choosing a book that has a different emphasis from their class presentation, while others prefer to use a book that reinforces and deepens the class work, so that the book does not necessarily reflect the nature of the total course.

A Checklist at the end of the article brings together the principal introductory textbooks for general music literature published in this country. When one of these is first mentioned, parenthetical reference will be made to its entry number on the Checklist for complete bibliographic information. As an indication of the growth of the music appreciation industry, these books have also been arranged into a chronological list, cross-referenced to the Checklist by number. It is worth noting that out of a total of 122 books in the Checklist, 36 of themapproximately 30%were first published within the last decade.


Historical Orientation

These books organize their material around the flow of history and follow a fairly uniform procedure of introducing terminology and formal concepts in varying degree, then proceeding through music history with stops here and there to examine representative pieces. They constitute the largest and most popular group, probably because the logic of their organization is most apparent and because this approach lends itself readily to lateral excursions into the allied arts, the humanities, or social/political history. They tend to be comprehensive; that is, they attempt to contain all material for the course, covering art music of Western culture and frequently delving into folk, popular, and ethnic areas. A recent development has been to accompany many of them with satellite material in the form of records, teacher's guides, student workbooks, and even pre-designed test questions. This may be ideal for a school using teaching assistants or faculty working outside of their specialty; but I, for one, would dread the thought of climbing into the cab of such an engine and driving it back and forth over the same track for 15 or 20 years. Of course, I must admit that the passengers see the scenery for the first time each trip.

Of those to be discussed, the earliest in wide use, and still one of the more literate, is An Introduction to Music by Martin Bernstein and Martin Picker (7). First published in 1937 by Bernstein alone, it recently appeared in an expanded 682-page fourth edition (1972) with more illustrations, more material, and more detailed treatment of the twentieth century. The book's great strength, besides its clear, intelligent language, is its chronological procedure, in which chronos and logos are both paid full due. As in almost all of these books, the points made discursively are illustrated by compositions for listening, with notated examples of key material printed in the text. Pretty much of a piece with that is Joseph Machlis' The Enjoyment of Music (70), now in its third edition (1970). It comes in a regular 628-page edition and a shorter 501-page version together with a student "Study Guide" (by Bergreen and Castellini), teacher's manual, and record set. Disclaiming chronology in the name of psychology, Machlis organizes the text on a "take-em-from-where-they are" basis, making the assumption that nineteenth-century Romanticism is "where they are," and working chronologically backwards before adding American Music and the Twentieth Century as final chapters. I personally find the reasoning for this particular plan somewhat dubious, but be that as it may, the book is well-written and useful either on the author's plan or in an alternate chronological outline he provides.

Basically similar, but with minor variations, are Walter Nallin's The Musical Idea (88), Charles Hoffer's The Understanding of Music (57), John Gillespie's The Musical Experience (50), John D. White's Understanding and Enjoying Music (117), and Listen, a title so attractive it adorns two separate books, one by Roland Nadeau and William Tesson (86), and a more recent one by Joseph Kerman (62).

Of these, three provide features deserving comment. Gillespie's Musical Experience seems to be aimed directly at those students that give an instructor heartburn. Although they are bright, they are poorly motivated, plagued by perceptual problems not only in hearing, but in reading comprehension as well, and totally lacking in prior contact with music off the AM radio band. If one wishes to reach these students it would take this kind of a book to do it. Extensive use is made of pictures and the language makes minimal demands on the reader. Another book reflecting a pragmatic decision taken in the face of substandard secondary school preparation is Dallin's Listeners Guide to Musical Understanding (23), which dispenses with musical notation entirely on the grounds that few can make any use of it. Dallin also builds his book on a dual matrix of genre and chronology, so that the students are taken over the same ground twice, in different directions.

Similar to these but marked by still stronger historical orientation, is David Boyden's Introduction to Music (11). The text provides more than just continuity, it is really a history of music for the non-musician, much in the style of Cannon, Johnson, and Waite's earlier Art of Music (17). Boyden's book covers more music, though, and is built around the listening experience, while the Art of Music is more concerned with the intellectual/historical context.


Structural Orientation

These books engage the student in the musical forms, often proceeding by genres. This offers the most accessible alternative to historical organization for the reader and, as a matter of fact, was the clear preference of many of the earlier authors. Such a scheme eliminates the need to include everything, although it does not exclude the possibility. Most authors, though, choose to concentrate on the standard body of repertoire.

Dallin's Listener's Guide to Musical Understanding has already. been mentioned in this connection. Another book that collates two different aspects of study is Sacher and Eversole's Art of Sound (95), which is divided into two principal sections, "Aesthetics" and "Genres." Robert Erickson's excellent little book, The Structure of Music (34) must be mentioned here too, even though I doubt whether it could be effectively used as a classroom text because it assumes some sophistication on the part of the reader. While it can hardly even be called recent, the book provides so much in the way of clear schematic diagrams for structural insight and lucid discussion of musical devices cutting across history, that it should be at the hand of everyone teaching a music literature course. Recent reprints of two earlier books point up at the same time the lack of new books using this approach and its continuing usefulness. These are Victor Zuckerkandl's The Sense of Music (122) and Douglas Moore's Listening to Music (84), which has gone through many more printings than his later, historically-based Guide to Musical Styles (83).


Humanities Orientation

This has a built-in market in schools where, either because of curriculum or faculty preference, introduction to music is subsumed within a general Arts/Humanities program, all too often contained in a single course. The strength of this approach as an ideal certainly needs no discussion; its drawbacks in the real world of curriculum distribution, though, can be summed up in a simple equation of inverse proportions: as the humanities content increases, the aural experience decreases.

Thus Joseph Kerman's tandem book with H.W. Janson, A History of Art and Music (58), must work with fewer listening examples and depend more on discursive explanation. In partial solution, Kerman uses schematic diagrams to demonstrate his points, but they are not always well designed, and are dropped in his later (and better) book, Listen, which is addressed specifically to the music literature introductory course. Don. C. Walter, in Men and Music in Western Culture (114), dispenses with music entirely in his text, and only refers to it in a discography at the end of each chapter. Sometimes, in the name of esthetics, these books become clearly tendentious, as Miller's Introduction to Music Appreciation (81), subtitled An Objective Approach to Listening, which even takes on the obligation of making value judgments for the student.

Another kind of book for use in this course is the reader, or anthology of writings about music. This provides material for discussion or exegesis, literary parallels to reinforce the classroom experience, or background material to give a frame of reference which the instructor can assume in presenting the music. Jacques Barzun's old reader, The Pleasures of Music could serve such a purpose, although that was not its primary intent. At least two welcome anthologies for the classroom have recently appeared to serve this need: An Introduction to Music: Selected Readings (48) edited by Walter Gerboth, Stoddard Lincoln, Robert Sanders and Robert Starer, and The World of Music (91), edited by Leroy Ostransky, who also did the earlier Perspectives on Music (90). Gerboth and company present a meatier selection focussing on esthetics, while the Ostransky lives up to its title by providing a potpourri of articles reflecting a broad spectrum of musical activities.


Skills Orientation

In adopting this approach, one must subscribe to five propositions:

  1. Music cannot be intelligently discussed with people who cannot isolate and identify musical events.
  2. Introductory students do not have the skills to discuss music qua music.
  3. Perceptive skills that are sufficient to allow practical application of those skills in class can be achieved during a course.
  4. Acquiring some level of skill in listening will encourage more listening and further development after the class ends.
  5. Acquisition of these skills supersedes intellectual knowledge about music as a priority, given the pressures on curricular time.

I must confess my own bias in favor of this approach, with class discussion and some supplementary reading used to relate the course to other areas. Two new textbooks have appeared recently representing this line of thinking: The Art of Listening: Developing Musical Perception (13) by Howard Brofsky and Jeanne Bamberger, and Listening to Music (22) by Richard Crocker and Ann Basart.

The Crocker-Basart book uses a systematic notational analogue to represent musical events. This is a powerful tool, and although I find the diagrams fussy and overly-detailed, they still serve the important purpose of focussing the student's attention on what is taking place in the music while confining discursive writing to explanation rather than description. The book concentrates in depth on only eighteen complete works, approaching them from the point of compositional technique rather than chronological sequence. Technical information and historical outlines are relegated to appendices, and a glossary completes the reference material at the back of the book.

The Brofsky-Bamberger text is entirely unique in serving as a study guide for the achievement of skill in aural perception. The text consists of guidance in directed listening to the accompanying records. Chronology is disregarded in the book's organization, which leads the student through a succession of aural experiences that provide a basic vocabulary of musical events and terminology for them. This is buttressed by schematics providing visual reinforcement. Through it all, the instructor of the class is entrusted with the real teaching: relating, interpreting, and stimulating; not just drill or explaining obscurities in the book.

For years music was plagued by an analogy with language as a form of communication. The analogy was false because it attempted to burden music with the function of language. But I think that it can now be profitably revived without danger of falling back into that same trap. There are certain useful parallels in that both are symbolic systems, with the chief difference being that only in music is the medium really the message, McLuhan notwithstanding. Modern linguistics, however, teaches us that the basic unit to work with is not the word, but the sentence, and I think the parallel is that the basic music unit is not the note or even the motive, but what Sessions called the "gesture". The appropriate succession in which material should be dealt with in the introductory music literature course starts from the students' real experience, that of passive audience, and proceeds first through musical rhetoric, then logic, and should only then, if at all, deal with musical syntax and grammar. This is roughly the reverse of the order in which musicians are expected to gain professional mastery, but then, no one teaches the appreciation of Shakespeare through the conjugation of Elizabethan irregular verbs.

It would not be the intent of such a class to teach students about the music nearly so much as to move them along the road from undifferentiated hearing to intelligent listening. That goal could be accomplished through any of the approaches found in the books surveyed above. But I do not think that reverence for Beethoven can be taught. It can be learned by studying his music, but for the layman that can best be done through intelligent listening.

One last thought on the importance of this course: the confident listener makes his voice heard, and we seem to be lacking that audience feedback just now. Not foreseeing that, Krehbiel underestimated the danger of pedantry. Even some composers today write only for their professional colleagues, and advocate disregarding the audience. It is time for our "numerous company of writers and talkers" to declare publicly for the rights of the intelligent audience. Separation from the composer and performer for two hundred years has meant disenfranchisement for the audience. Their response, as always among the disenfranchised, has been to vote with their feet, and music is now paying a steep price for that separation. I am not speaking about new music alone, but about the health of the art of music generally. Right now an intelligent, appreciative audience is a necessity to the continued vitality of music-making, and it appears that the Music Appreciation, Introduction to Music, or Music Survey coursecall it what you willis our last, best hope.


A Checklist of American Textbooks
for the Introductory Music Literature
Class at the College Levels

1. Abbott, Lawrence. Approach to Music. New York and Toronto: Farrar and Rinehart, Inc., 1940. pp. 358.

2. Allen, Warren Dwight. Our Marching Civilization: An Introduction to the Study of Music and Society. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1943. pp. xii, 112.

3. Apel, Paul H. The Message of Music. New York: Vintage Press, 1958. pp. v-ix, 496.

4. Baxter, William H., Jr. Basic Studies in Music. Rockleigh, N.J.: Allyn and Bacon, Inc., 1968.

5. Bernstein, Leonard. The Infinite Variety of Music. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1962. pp. 286.

6. . The Joy of Music. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1959.

7. Bernstein, Martin. An Introduction to Music. New York: Prentice-Hall, 1937. pp. xv, 446.

8. Bockmon, Guy Alan, and William J. Starr. Scored for Listening: A Guide to Music. New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, Inc., 1959. pp. xx, 283.

9. Boise, Otis Bardwell. Music and Its Masters (Philadelphia, 1902), reprint. New York: AMS Press, 1971. pp. 206.

10. Bookspan, Martin. 101 Masterpieces of Music and Their Composers. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1968. pp. 511.

11. Boyden, David D. An Introduction to Music. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., 1956. pp. xxviii, 554.

12. Brandt, William E. The Way of Music. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, Inc., 1963. pp. x, 595.

13. Brofsky, Howard, and Jeanne Shapiro Bamberger. The Art of Listening: Developing Musical Perception. New York: Harper and Row, Publishers, Inc., 1969. pp. xv, 319.

14. Buck, Sir Percy Carter. The Scope of Music. Freeport, N.Y.: Books for Libraries Press, 1924. pp. 135.

15. Buker, Alden. Humanistic Approach to Music Appreciation. Palo Alto, California: National Press Books, 1964. pp. 199.

16. Bush, Geoffrey. Musical Creation and the Listener. New York: Hawthorn Books, 1954. pp. 126.

17. Cannon, Beekman C., Alvin H. Johnson, and William G. Waite. The Art of Music: A Short History of Musical Styles and Ideas. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company, 1962. pp. vi, 484.

18. Chasins, Abram. The Appreciation of Music: A Living Method Course. New York: Crown Publishers, Inc., 1966.

19. Clarke, H.L. Studies in Listening. Palo Alto, California: Pacific Books, 1965. pp. 37.

20. Cooper, Grosvenor W., ed. Learning to Listen: A Handbook for Music. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1957. pp. xiii, 167.

21. Copland, Aaron. What to Listen for in Music. New York: The McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., 1939. pp. vii-ix, 192.

22. Crocker, Richard L., and Ann P. Basart. Listening to Music. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1971. pp. x, 420.

23. Dallin, Leon. Listener's Guide to Musical Understanding. Dubuque, Iowa: Wm. C. Brown Company Publishers, 1959. pp. xiii, 320.

24. Darnton, Christian. You and Music. New York: Penguin Books, Inc., 1940. pp. v, 180.

25. Davies, Sir Henry Walford. The Pursuit of Music. London and New York: T. Nelson and Sons, Ltd., 1935. pp. x, 438.

26. Dickinson, Edward. The Education of a Music Lover. New York: C. Scribner's Sons, 1911. pp. xi, 293.

27. , ed. Fundamentals of Musical Art, 19 vols. New York: Caxton Institute, 1926-1928.

28. Dickinson, George Sherman. The Pattern of Music. Poughkeepsie, New York: Vassar College, 1939. pp. 57.

29. Doust, Len A. How to Enjoy Music; Hints for All Listeners. London and New York: F. Warne and Co., Ltd., 1936. pp. 134.

30. Downes, Olin. The Lure of Music: Depicting the Human Side of Great Composers, With Stories of Their Inspired Creations. New York and London: Harper and Brothers Publishers, 1918. pp. 353.

31. Earhart, Will. Music to the Listening Ear. New York: M. Whitmark and Sons, 1932. pp. xiv, 173.

32. Elson, A. The Book of Musical Knowledge; The History, Technique and Appreciation of Music, Together with Lives of the Great Composers. Boston: Houghton, 1915. pp. 603.

33. Erb, John Lawrence. Music Appreciation for the Student. New York: G. Schirmer, Inc., 1926. pp. xv, 231.

34. Erickson, Robert. The Structure of Music: A Listener's Guide. New York: Noonday Press, 1955. pp. xi, 209.

35. Erskine, John, ed. A Musical Companion. New York: Tudor Publishing Co., 1935. pp. v-xvi, 516.

36. . What is Music? Philadelphia and New York: J.B. Lippincott Co., 1944. pp. v, 212.

37. Faulkner, Anne Shaw. Music in the Home, An Aid to Parents and Teachers in the Cause of Better Listening. Chicago: R.F. Seymour, 1917. pp. 155.

38. . What We Hear in Music. Camden, N.J.: Educational Department, Victor Talking Machine Company, 1913. pp. 441.

39. Feldman, Harry Allen. Music and the Listener. New York: E.P. Dutton and Co., Inc., 1939. pp. 205.

40. Ferguson, Donald Nivison. Masterworks of the Orchestral Repertoire; A Guide for Listeners. Minneapolis, Minn.: University of Minnesota Press, 1954. pp. xxii, 662.

41. . The Why of Music; Dialogues in an Unexplored Region of Appreciation. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1969. pp. iv, 309.

42. Ferraro, Louis, and Sam Adams. Music: Imaginative Listening. Baton Rouge, La.: Claitor's Publishing Division, 1969.

43. Finney, Theodore Mitchell. Hearing Music. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1941. pp. x, 354.

44. Fishburn, Hummel. Fundamentals of Music Appreciation. New York: Longmans, Green, 1955. pp. 263.

45. Fox-Strangways, A.H. Music Observed. Freeport, N.Y.: Books for Libraries Press, Inc., 1936. pp. vii-ix, 235.

46. Gammond, Peter. The Meaning and Magic of Music. Wayne, N.J.: Golden Press Western Publishing Co., Inc., 1970.

47. Garvie, Peter, ed. Music and Western Man. New York: Philosophical Library, 1958. pp. v-ix, 328.

48. Gerboth, Walter et al., eds. An Introduction to Music: Edited for the Brooklyn College Music Dept. New York: W.W. Norton, 1964. pp. vi, 214.

49. Giddings, Thaddeus Philander. Music Appreciation in the Schoolroom. Boston and New York: Ginn and Co., 1926. pp. vi, 557.

50. Gillespie, John. The Musical Experience. Belmont, California: Wadsworth Publishing Company, Inc., 1968. pp. xxi, 469.

51. Gilman, Lawrence. Stories of Symphonic Music. New York and London: Harper and Brothers, 1907. pp. 358.

52. Goetschius, Percy. Masters of the Symphony. Boston: Oliver Ditson Co., 1929. pp. x, 393.

53. Hall, Leland. Listeners' Music. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co., 1937. pp. vii, 222.

54. Hamilton, Clarence Grant. Epochs in Musical Progress. Boston: Oliver Ditson Co., 1926. pp. 278.

55. Hess, Adelaide. A Short Introduction to Music. New York, N.Y.: G. Schirmer, Inc., 1954. pp. 34.

56. Hickok, Robert. Music Appreciation. New York: Appleton-Century Crofts, 1971. pp. vii-viii, 409.

57. Hoffer, Charles R. The Understanding of Music. Belmont, California: Wadsworth Publishing Company, Inc., 1967. pp. xviii, 483.

58. Janson, H.W., and Joseph Kerman. A History of Art and Music. New York: Prentice-Hall, Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1968. pp. xxii, 318.

59. Jarvis, Harriette. Music, Listen and Learn. Dubuque, Iowa: Wm. C. Brown Co. Publishers, 1972.

60. Karolyi, Otto. Introducing Music. Baltimore: Penguin Books, 1965.

61. Katz, Adele T. HearingGateway to Music; a Complete Foundation for Musical Understanding. Evanston, Ill.: Summy-Birchard Pub. Co., 1959. pp. 172.

62. Kerman, Joseph. Listen. New York, N.Y.: Worth Publishers, Inc., 1972. pp. v-viii, 392.

63. Kinscella, Hazel Gertrude. Kinscella Music Appreciation Readers. New York: The University Publishing Company, 1926.

64. . Music and Romance for Youth. Camden, N.J.: Education Dept., RCA Victor Co., Inc., 1930. pp. 422.

65. Kirby, Frank E. An Introduction to Western Music: Bach, Beethoven, Wagner, Stravinsky. New York: Macmillan, 1970. pp. vii-ix, 456.

66. Kobbé, Gustav. How to Appreciate Music. New York: Moffat, Yard and Co., 1912. pp. 275.

67. Krehbiel, Henry Edward. How to Listen to Music: Hints and Suggestions to Untaught Lovers of the Art. New York: Ch. Scribner's Sons, 1896. pp. xv, 361.

68. Leichtentritt, Hugo. Music, History, and Ideas. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1938. pp. 292.

69. Lowance, Kathleen. Much Ado About Music; A Road to Happy Listening, Illustrated by John Anderson. Atlanta, Georgia: Tupper and Love, 1952. pp. 241.

70. Machlis, Joseph. The Enjoyment of Music: An Introduction to Perceptive Listening. New York: W.W. Norton, 1955. pp. xx, 682.

71. Mason, Daniel Gregory. Ears to Hear. Chicago: American Library Association, 1925. pp. 35.

72. . From Song to Symphony: A Manual of Music Appreciation. Boston: Oliver Ditson Co., 1924.

73. . A Guide to Music for Beginners and Others, Vol. V of The Appreciation of Music Series, 5 vols. by D.G. Mason and Thomas Surette. New York: H.W. Gray, 1909. pp. 243.

74. Mathews, William Smythe. How to Understand Music: A Concise Course in Musical Intelligence and Taste, 2 vols. Philadelphia: T. Presser, 1880 and 1888. pp. 216 and 80.

75. . The Masters and Their Music: A Series of Illustrative Programs, with Biographical, Esthetical, and Critical Annotations. Designed as an Introduction to Music as Literature. For the Use of Clubs, Classes, and Private Study. (Philadelphia, 1898.) Facsimile edition, Philadelphia: Theodore Presser, 1971. pp. iii-vii, 248.

76. McKinney, Howard D. Music and Man. New York: American Book Co., 1948. pp. 405.

77. . The Challenge of Listening. Rutgers College, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1943. pp. 302.

78. and W.R. Anderson. Discovering Music. New York: American Book Co., 1934.

79. . Music in History: The Evolution of an Art. New York: American Book Co., 1954. pp. v-vii, 904.

80. Miller, Hugh Milton. Introduction to Music; A Guide to Good Listening. New York: Barnes and Noble, 1958. pp. 260.

81. Miller, William H. Introduction to Music Appreciation: An Objective Approach to Listening. Philadelphia: Chilton Company Book Division, 1961. pp. xvii, 329.

82. Mohler, Louis. Teaching Music from an Appreciative Basis. Boston and New York: C.C. Birchard and Co., 1927. pp. 159.

83. Moore, Douglas. A Guide to Musical Styles: From Madrigal to Modern Music. New York: W.W. Norton and Co., Inc., 1942. pp. ix-xii, 347.

84. . Listening to Music. New York: W.W. Norton and Co., Inc., 1932. pp. viii, 296.

85. Moyer, Dorothy Tremble. Introduction to Music Appreciation and History, for the Division of University Extension, Massachusetts Department of Education. New York: C.H. Ditson and Co., 1923. pp. vi, 137.

86. Nadeau, Roland, and William Tesson. Listen; A Guide to the Pleasures of Music. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, Inc., 1968. pp. xiii, 446.

87. . Music for the Listener. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, Inc., 1968. pp. x, 484.

88. Nallin, Walter E. The Musical Idea: A Consideration of Music and Its Ways. New York: Macmillan Company, 1968. pp. xviii, 650.

89. Newman, William S. Understanding Music. New York: Harper and Brothers, Publishers, 1953. pp. xxii, 330.

90. Ostransky, Leroy. Perspectives on Music. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1969. pp. vii-ix, 430.

91. . The World of Music. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1969. pp. xii, 243.

92. Randolph, David. This is Music; A Guide to the Pleasures of Listening. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1964. pp. 273.

93. Ratner, Leonard. Music: The Listener's Art. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1957. pp. 463.

94. Russell, Myron E. A Guide for Exploring Music. Dubuque, Iowa: Wm. C. Brown Co., 1955. pp. vi, 130.

95. Sacher, Jack, and James Eversole. The Art of Sound: An Introduction to Music. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1971. pp. xx, 332.

96. Scholes, Percy Alfred. The Listener's Guide to Music, with a Concert-Goer's Glossary. New York: Oxford University Press, 1919. pp. vii, 106.

97. Scholl, Sharon, and Sylvia White. Music and the Culture of Man. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1970. pp. v-vi, 307.

98. Schroeder, Ira. Listener's Handbook; A Guide to Music Appreciation. Ames, Iowa: Iowa State University Press, 1958. pp. x, 194.

99. Sessions, Roger. The Musical Experience of Composer, Performer, Listener. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1950. pp. iv, 127.

100. Skolsky, Syd. Make Way for Music. New York: E.P. Dutton and Co., Inc., 1946. pp. 138.

101. Smith, Charles Thomas. Music and Reason; The Art of Listening, Appreciating and Composing. New York: Social Sciences Publishers, 1948. pp. ix, 158.

102. Spaeth, Sigmund Gottfried. The Art of Enjoying Music. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1933. pp. xiv, 451.

103. . The Common Sense of Music. New York: Boni and Liveright, 1924. pp. 375.

104. . Stories Behind the World's Great Music. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1937. pp. xiv, 373.

105. Spalding, Walter Raymond. Music: An Art and a Language. Boston and New York: The Arthur P. Schmidt Co., 1920. pp. ii, 342.

106. Stone, Kathryn E. Music Appreciation Taught by Means of the Phonograph, For Use in Schools. Chicago and New York: Scott, Foresman and Company, 1922. pp. 175.

107. Strickling, George Franklin. Music Literature; A Practical Music Appreciation Book for Everybody. St. Louis: M.A. Shickman, 1956. pp. 104.

108. Stringham, Edwin John. Listening to Music Creatively. New York: Prentice-Hall, Inc. 1946. pp. xx, 479.

109. Taylor, Deems. The Well Tempered Listener. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1940. pp. xvi, 333.

110. Thompson, Oscar. How to Understand Music. New York: The Dial Press, 1935. pp. 347.

111. Tischler, Hans. The Perceptive Music Listener. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1955. pp. xxii, 458.

112. Ulrich, Homer. Music: A Design for Listening. New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, Inc., 1962. pp. vi, 502.

113. Veinus, Abraham, and William Fleming. Understanding Music: Style, Structure, and History. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1958.

114. Walter, Don C. Men and Music in Western Culture. New York: Appleton-Century Crofts, 1969. pp. viii, 244.

115. Weinstock, Herbert. What Music Is. Garden City, New York: Doubleday and Company, Inc., 1966. pp. xxxv, 396.

116. Welch, Roy Dickinson. The Appreciation of Music. New York and London: Harper and Brothers, 1927. pp. xv, 192.

117. White, John D. Understanding and Enjoying Music. New York and Toronto: Dodd, Mead and Co., 1968. pp. 345.

118. Wilm, Mrs. Grace Gridley. The Appreciation of Music; Ten Talks on Musical Form. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1928. pp. xi, 139.

119. Wink, Richard L., and Lois G. Williams. Invitation to Listening: An Introduction to Music. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1972. pp. ix-x, 289.

120. Winold, Allen. Elements of Musical Understanding. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1966. pp. 404.

121. Wold, Milo, and Edmund Cykler. An Introduction to Music and Art in the Western World. Dubuque, Iowa: Wm. C. Brown Co. Publishers, 1955. pp. ii, 320.

122. Zuckerkandl, Victor. The Sense of Music. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1959. pp. v-viii, 246.


College Music Appreciation Texts
Ordered by Year of Publication,
Including Reference to Reviews
from 1960 to March 1971

Year   Checklist
1880 Mathews, How to Understand Music 74
1896 Krehbiel, How to Listen to Music 67
1898 Mathews, The Masters and Their Music 75
1902 Boise, Music and Its Masters 9
1907 Gilman, Stories of Symphonic Music 51
1909 Mason, A Guide to Music . . . 73
1911 Dickinson, The Education of a Music Lover 26
1912 Kobbé, How to Appreciate Music 66
1913 Faulkner, What We Hear in Music 38
1915 Elson, The Book of Musical Knowledge 32
1917 Faulkner, Music in the Home . . . 37
1918 Downes, The Lure of Music 30
1919 Scholes, The Listener's Guide to Music . . . 96
1920 Spalding, Music: An Art and a Language 105
1922 Stone, Music Appreciation Taught . . . 106
1923 Moyer, Introduction to Music . . . 85
1924 Buck, The Scope of Music 14
  Mason, From Song to Symphony 72
  Spaeth, The Common Sense of Music 103
1925 Mason, Ears to Hear 71
1926 Dickinson, Fundamentals of Musical Art 27
  Erb, Music Appreciation . . . 33
  Giddings, Music Appreciation . . . 49
  Hamilton, Epochs in Musical Progress 54
  Kinscella, Kinscella Music Appreciation . . . 63
1927 Mohler, Teaching Music . . . 82
  Welch, The Appreciation of Music 116
1928 Wilm, The Appreciation of Music 118
1929 Goetschius, Masters of the Symphony 52
1930 Kinscella, Music and Romance for Youth 64
1932 Earhart, Music to the Listening Ear 31
  Moore, Listening to Music 84
1933 Spaeth, The Art of Enjoying Music 102
1934 McKinney, Discovering Music 78
1935 Davies, The Pursuit of Music 25
  Erskine, A Musical Companion 35
  Thompson, How to Understand Music 110
1936 Doust, How to Enjoy Music 29
  Fox-Strangways, Music Observed 45
1937 Bernstein, An Introduction to Music 7
  Hall, Listeners' Music 53
  Spaeth, Stories Behind the World's . . . 104
1938 Leichtentritt, Music, History, and Ideas 68
1939 Copland, What to Listen for in Music 21
  Dickinson, The Pattern of Music 28
  Feldman, Music and the Listener 39
1940 Abbott, Approach to Music 1
  Darnton, You and Music 24
  Taylor, The Well Tempered Listener 109
1941 Finney, Hearing Music 43
1942 Moore, A Guide to Musical Styles 83
1943 Allen, Our Marching Civilization 2
  McKinney, The Challenge of Listening 77
1944 Erskine, What is Music? 36
1946 Skolsky, Make Way for Music 100
  Stringham, Listening to Music Creatively 108
1948 McKinney, Music and Man 76
  Smith, Music and Reason 101
1950 Sessions, The Musical Experience . . . 99
1952 Lowance, Much Ado About Music 69
1953 Newman, Understanding Music 89
1954 Bush, Musical Creation . . . 16
  Ferguson, Masterworks of the Orchestral . . . 40
  Hess, A Short Introduction to Music 55
  McKinney, Music in History 79
1955 Erickson, The Structure of Music 34
  Fishburn, Fundamentals of Music Appreciation 44
  Machlis, The Enjoyment of Music 70
  Russell, A Guide for Exploring Music 94
  Tischler, The Perceptive Music Listener 111
  Wold, An Introduction to Music . . . 121
1956 Boyden, An Introduction to Music 11
  Strickling, Music Literature 107
1957 Cooper, Learning to Listen 20
  Ratner, Music: The Listener's Art 93
1958 Apel, The Message of Music 3
  Garvie, Music and Western Man 47
  Miller, Introduction to Music 80
  Schroeder, Listener's Handbook 98
  Veinus, Understanding Music 113
1959 Bernstein, The Joy of Music 6
  Bockmon, Scored for Listening 8
  Dallin, Listeners Guide to Musical . . . 23
  Katz, HearingGateway to Music 61
  Zuckerkandl, The Sense of Music 122
1961 Miller, Introduction to Music Appreciation 81
    Mus. Ed. J. LVII (Nov. 1970), 78-9; Mus. Ed. J. XLVIII/3 (1962), 100; Mus. Mag. CLXIV (Feb. 1962), 51; Notes XIV/2 (1962), 263-4; J. Res. Mus. Ed. IX/2 (1961), 173.  
1962 Bernstein, The Infinite Variety of Music 5
    Hud. Roz. XXIII/1 (1970), 41-2; Composer 31 (Spring 1969), 32; Mus. T. CX (March 1969), 270-71; Mus. and Mus. XVII (Nov. 1968), 62; Mus. Clubs Mag. XLVII/3 (1968), 47; Am. Rec. G. XXXIII (May 1967), 856-8; Hi. Fi./Mus. Am. XVII (April 1967), 29; Int. Mus. LXVI (July 1967), 19; Mus. Ed. J. LIV (Oct. 1967), 77-8.  
1963 Brandt, The Way of Music 12
    Am. Mus. Tcr. XVIII/4 (1969), 37; Notes XXI/1-2 (1963-1964), 138; Mus. Ed. J. L/1 (1963), 147-8.  
  Ostransky, Perspectives on Music 90
    J. Res. Mus. Ed. XII/1 (1964), 118; Mus. T. CV (Aug. 1964), 585; Mus. Ed. J. L/1 (1963), 148-9.  
1964 Buker, Humanistic Approach to Music Appreciation 15
  Gerboth, An Introduction to Music 48
  Randolph, This is Music 92
    Stereo R. XXII (Mar. 1969), 46; Notes XXII/4 (1966), 1236; Clavier III/3 (1964), 7; Instrument XVIII (May 1964), 9; Int. Mus. LXII (June 1964), 31; Mus. Ed. J. LI/1 (1964), 122-3.  
1965 Clarke, Studies in Listening 19
  Karolyi, Introducing Music 60
    Pan Pipes LVIII/4 (1966), 20; Composer 16 (July 1965), 36; Mus. In Ed. XXIX/314 (1965), 191; Mus. T. CVI (June 1965), 443+; Mus. Tcr. XLIV (Aug. 1965), 323; Nats. XXII/1 (1965), 46.  
1966 Chasins, The Appreciation of Music 18
  Weinstock, What Music Is 115
    Am. Rec. G. XXXV (May 1969), 900; Pan Pipes LXI/3 (1969), 30; Int. Mus. LXV (Dee. 1966), 10; J. Res. Mus. Ed. XIV/3 (1966), 234-5; Mus. Clubs Mag. XLV/4 (1966), 29; Mus. J. XXIV (May 1966), 79.  
  Winold, Elements of Musical Understanding 120
    Mus. Ed. J. LIV (Jan. 1968), 99-100; Mus. Op. XC (Jan. 1967), 207; Mus. Events XXI (Aug. 1966), 35; Mus. Tcr. XLV (June 1966), 245.  
1967 Hoffer, The Understanding of Music 57
    Mus. Ed. J. LV (Mar. 1969), 97-8; Mus. T. CIX (July 1968), 633; Mus. In Ed. XXXII/330 (1968), 90; Notes XXIV/4 (1968), 721-2.  
1968 Baxter, Basic Studies in Music 4
  Bookspan, 101 Masterpieces of Music . . . 10
    Mus. Clubs Mag. XLVIII/3 (1969), 33.  
  Gillespie, The Musical Experience 50
    Mus. Ed. J. LV (Mar. 1969), 98-9.  
  Janson, A History of Art and Music 58
    J. Aesthetics XXIX/1 (1970), 145; Notes XXVI/3 (1970), 506-8; Mus. Ed. J. LV (Mar. 1969), 101-3; Clavier VIII/1 (1969), 6.  
  Nadeau, Listen; A Guide . . . 86
  Nadeau, Music for the Listener 87
  Nallin, The Musical Idea 88
    J. Res. Mus. Ed. XVIII/4 (1970), 430-32; Mus. Ed. J. LV (May 1969), 83+; Instrument XXIII (Aug. 1968), 18.  
  White, Understanding and Enjoying Music 117
1969 Brofsky, The Art of Listening 13
    Mus. Ed. J. LVI (Mar. 1970), 91+.  
  Ferguson, The Why of Music 41
    Mus. Tcr. XLIX (Nov. 1970), 21; Mus. and Let. LI/l (1970), 81-5; Mus. Op. XCIV (Dec. 1970), 139; Notes XXVI/2 (1969), 258-60; Clavier VIII/2 (1969), 7.  
  Ferraro, Music: Imaginative Listening 42
  Ostransky, The World of Music 91
    Mus. Ed. J. LVI (Nov. 1969), 98-9.  
  Walter, Men and Music in Western . . . 114
    Mus. Ed. J. LVI (April 1970), 97; Strad LXXXI (Nov. 1970), 331.  
1970 Gammond, The Meaning and Magic . . . 46
    Mus. Tcr. XLVIII (Mar. 1969), 27; Mus. In Ed. XXXIII/336 (1969), 91.  
  Kirby, An Introduction to Western Music 65
    Mus. Ed. J. LVII (Nov. 1970), 91.  
  Scholl, Music and the Culture of Man 97
    Mus. J. XXVIII (Sep. 1970), 12.  
1971 Boise, Music and Its Masters 9
  Crocker, Listening to Music 22
  Hickok, Music Appreciation 56
  Sacher, The Art of Sound 95
1972 Jarvis, Music, Listen and Learn 59
  Kerman, Listen 62
  Wink, Invitation to Listening 119

Abbreviations keyed to the Music Index.


1Music for the General College Student (New York, 1944), p. 132.

2AMS Press recently reprinted the fifth edition of this (c1888) with the original title page reading: How to Understand Music: A Concise Course by Object Lessons and Essays.

3How to Listen to Music, pp. 13-14.

2676 Last modified on November 13, 2018