A Survey of Music Anthologies
The purpose of this article is to provide the reader with a survey of anthologies of music published since 1965. Prior to this date, the classroom teacher had access to only a few compilations of music. These included, for example, Albert Wier's numerous volumes of chamber music, concertos, symphonies, and symphonic poems (1934-44), Examples of Music Before 1400 (1942) by Harold Gleason, and the two Historical Anthology of Music volumes (1949-50) by Archibald Davison and Willi Apel. In 1950, Arnold Schering's Geschichte der Musik in Beispielen (1931) was reprinted as History of Music in Examples. Other anthologies from the 1950's included Masterpieces of Music Before 1750 (1951) by Carl Parrish and John Ohl and Parrish's A Treasury of Early Music (1958). Two examples of anthologies published in the early 1960's were Leon Stein's Anthology of Musical Forms and Volume I (Homophony) of Music Literature by Gordon Hardy and Arnold Fish. Although all of these collections continue to be used as important sources of music in history and theory-related courses, approximately thirty additional volumes are now available and will be surveyed within the context of two distinct categories: those anthologies which utilize a chronological approach and those anthologies which utilize a technique-oriented and/or formal approach.
Otto Hamburg's Music History in Examples contains nearly 100 selections from Greek music through J.S. Bach. The seventeen chapters are ordered chronologically according to significant musical trends from the afore-mentioned Greek music to Gregorian chant, Ars Antiqua and Ars Nova, the Netherlands school and Palestrina through oratorio and cantata in the seventeenth century. There is a separate commentary for each example with references to further study material. Another anthology which begins with Greek music is Part 1 of Music Scores Omnibus by William Starr and George Devine. The, again, nearly 100 compositions are representative of composers through Beethoven. All selections are in full score, with several of them presented, not as single excerpts or movements, but as complete works.
Study Scores of Musical Styles by Edward Lerner is a compilation of eighty-six examples from the Medieval, Renaissance, and Baroque periods. Preceding each work is relevant information regarding the source, available recordings, elements of structure and style, and, where appropriate, a translation of the text. In Volume 1 of The Norton Scores series, Roger Kamien provides thirty-six selections ranging from Gregorian chant to Beethoven. This anthology begins with introductory comments in reference to the unique highlighting system employed throughout and a summary of performance practices. In additional to an Index of Forms and Genres, there are three appendices: a) Reading an Orchestral Score; b) Instrumental Names and Abbreviations; and c) Glossary of Musical Terms Used in the Scores. Charles Burkhart's Anthology for Musical Analysis is a chronological representation of forty-eight composers from Machaut to Bruce Saylor (born 1946). Preceding the Machaut examples are several plainchant excerpts and a motet by an anonymous composer. The 194 complete movements or works are grouped into five sections, each of which begins with a brief summary of the compositions about to be studied. Then each selection, in turn, is preceded by significant facts plus analytical questions and suggestions. Following an appendix containing several chorale harmonizations are a General Index and an Index of Chords, Sequences, and Modulations. Although not available for the present survey, the first volume of The Comprehensive Study of Music by William Brandt, et al. will include works ranging from plainchant through Gabrieli; the fifth volume will have piano reductions for harmonic study. Also not available is Richard Hoppin's Anthology of Medieval Music.
With particular emphasis on J.S. Bach, Handel, and Mozart, Brandt, et al. have compiled approximately forty compositions from Monteverdi through the eighteenth century in the second volume of The Comprehensive Study of Music. Some ninety examples of chamber, choral, keyboard, and orchestral works are included in Eighteenth-Century Imitative Counterpoint by Wallace Berry and Edward Chudacoff. Two of the anthology's five parts are devoted to music by J.S. Bach and Handel. For reference purposes, the works are classified according to their medium of performance, number of voices, and form of genre. Anthology of Music for Analysis by Albert Cohen and John White is comprised of about thirty selections from the Baroque Fugue to Music of Impressionism, i.e. Buxtehude through Ravel.
F.E. Kirby's Music in the Classic Period has a total of thirty examples, most of which are by Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven. Fifty Art Songs by Henry T. Finck is an unabridged republication of Fifty Mastersongs (1903) representing twenty composers from Mozart to Richard Strauss. The anthology begins with a commentary about each song. English translations are coupled with the foreign texts.
The Comprehensive Study of Music's third volume, "Anthology of Music from Beethoven Through Wagner," has approximately forty examples by fourteen composers. Volume 2 of Kamien's The Norton Scores includes thirty-six works from Schubert to Davidovsky. As with the first volume, there are three appendices in addition to an Index of Forms and Genres. A record set accompanies the series. Also, a single publication (Standard) is available which, as a condensed version, is comprised of fifty-two compositions from Gregorian chant to the twentieth century.
The last anthology in this survey to use a chronological approach is the fourth volume of The Comprehensive Study of Music. Eighteen composers from Debussy to Stockhausen are represented in approximately forty selections.
Technique-oriented and/or formal approaches are utilized in a number of anthologies published since 1965. These various collections will be considered alphabetically by author.
Music Sources by Mary Arlin, et al. contains 341 instrumental and vocal excerpts from the seventeenth to nineteenth centuries plus twenty-six examples of twentieth century compositional techniques. A separate section has forty-five complete movements organized according to the following forms: a) binary; b) ternary; c) variations; d) 5-part rondo; and e) single-movement sonata form. Music for Analysis by Thomas Benjamin, et al. has four sections of complete pieces (total of twenty-nine), with each section following excerpts from general areas of harmonic study. Intended to accompany the authors' Techniques and Materials of Tonal Music, this anthology incorporates the typical order of presentation found in most basic theory textbooks. In this regard, one of the appendices is a correlation chart to be used with textbooks by such authors as Ottman, Piston, and Persichetti. Joscelyn Godwin's Schirmer Scores has eighty-eight examples from Gregorian chant to Cornelius Cardew and Terry Riley (both born 1935).
Although the range of composers is from Machaut to Roy Harris, Volume II of Music Literature by Gordon Hardy and Arnold Fish emphasizes polyphony from the sixteenth and eighteenth centuries. A most useful appendix provides definitions and/or brief discussions regarding twenty-six contrapuntal terms. Owen Jander's Music of the Classical Era: Twenty Examples for Analysis offers complete movements by Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven which are representative of the most important formal procedures of the period: sonata form, minuet and trio, rondo, theme and variation, etc. Introductory comments precede each selection.
The two books of the Gradus Music Anthology by Leo Kraft, coordinated with the author's Gradus (an Integrated Approach to Harmony, Counterpoint, and Analysis), contain 249 excerpts and complete movements from all musical eras. Paul Henry Lang's The Concerto and The Symphony include a total of twenty compositions from Beethoven to Dvorak. With one exception, all works are complete. Summaries of each genre introduce the respective volumes.
In their Music for Advanced Study, Robert Melcher and Willard Warch provide 164 examples plus thirteen complete forms, the latter representing works by J.S. Bach through Tchaikovsky. The former, in thirteen chapters, progress from diminished seventh chords through the subject of passing and neighboring chords. Together with Howard Murphy, Melcher and Warch offer an additional 289 selections in Music for Study. The topics range from the I chord and nonharmonic tones to twelve-tone technique. Besides twelve-tone, three other twentieth century compositional practices are exemplified: a) The Whole-Tone Scale; b) Quartal Harmony and; c) Polychords and Polytonality.
Ninety examples of Gregorian chant, two, three, four, and five voice writing plus four Palestrina masses are found in Examples of Gregorian Chant and Other Sacred Music of the 16th Century by Gustave Soderlund and Samuel Scott. Composers in this collection, in addition to Palestrina, are Lassus, DesPres, Victoria, and Morales. Lloyd Ultan's workbook/anthology which accompanies his textbook, Music Theory: Problems and Practices in the Middle Ages and Renaissance, contains approximately sixty-five examples representative of such composers as Dunstable, Dufay, and Palestrina.
Music Literature for Analysis and Study by Charles Walton has 302 excerpts that are categorized into the broad areas of diatonic and chromatic chords, and modulations. Twenty-two complete selections of movements represent composers from Couperin to Sibelius. David and Susan Ward-Steinman have compiled 174 works in their two volumes titled Comparative Anthology of Musical Forms. The numerous compositions are divided formally into seven distinct units: a) Sectional Forms; b) Themes and Variations; c) Cantus Firmus Compositions; d) Ostinato Compositions; e) Contrapuntal Textures; f) Single-Movement Sonata Forms; and g) Through-Composed Compositions, Group Forms. Five comprehensive indices complete the anthology.
Finally, Mary Wennerstrom's Anthology of Twentieth-Century Music includes approximately thirty-two compositions by thirteen composers from Schoenberg to Kenneth Gaburo (born 1926). Preceding each composition is a brief commentary in regard to the composer and his work plus questions intended to alert the student to the work's unique aspects. In addition to listing the compositions chronologically and by medium, there is a Selected List of Recordings.
Arlin, Mary I., Charles H. Lord, Arthur E. Ostrander, and Marjorie S. Porterfield, Music Sources (A Collection of Excerpts and Complete Movements). Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1979.
Benjamin, Thomas, Michael Horvit, and Robert Nelson. Music for Analysis (Examples from the Common Practice Period and the Twentieth Century). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1978.
Berry, Wallace, and Edward Chudacoff. Eighteenth-Century Imitative Counterpoint (Music for Analysis). New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1969.
Brandt, William, Arthur Corra, William Christ, Richard DeLone, and Allen Winold. The Comprehensive Study of Music, 5 Vols. New York: Harper's College Press (Vol. I, 1979; Vol. II, 1977; Vol. III, 1977; Vol. IV, 1976; Vol. V, 1979).
Burkhart, Charles. Anthology for Musical Analysis, Third Edition. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1978.
Cohen, Albert, and John D. White. Anthology of Music for Analysis. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1965.
Finck, Henry T. Fifty Art Songs (by Nineteenth-Century Masters). New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1975.
Godwin, Joscelyn. Schirmer Scores (Repertory of Western Music). New York: Schirmer Books, 1975.
Hamburg, Otto. Music History in Examples (from Antiquity to Johann Sebastian Bach). Trans. Susan Hellauer. New York: C.F. Peters Corporation, 1978.
Hardy, Gordon, and Arnold Fish. Music Literature (A Workbook for Analysis), Vol. II: Polyphony. New York: Dodd, Mead & Company, Inc., 1966.
Hoppin, Richard H. Anthology of Medieval Music. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1978.
Jander, Owen. Music of the Classical Era: Twenty Examples for Analysis. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company, 1967.
Kamien, Roger. The Norton Scores (An Anthology for Listening), Third Edition-Expanded, 2 Vols. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1977.
__________. The Norton Scores (An Anthology for Listening), Third Edition-Standard. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc.,1977.
Kirby, F.E. Music in the Classic Period (An Anthology with Commentary). New York: Schirmer Books, 1979.
Kraft, Leo. Gradus Music Anthology, 2 Vols. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1976.
Lang, Paul Henry. The Concerto, 1800-1900 (A Norton Music Anthology). New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1969.
__________. The Symphony, 1800-1900 (A Norton Music Anthology). New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1969.
Lerner, Edward R. Study Scores of Musical Styles. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1968.
Melcher, Robert A., and Willard F. Warch. Music for Advanced Study (A Source Book of Excerpts). Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1965.
Murphy, Howard A., Robert A. Melcher, and Willard F. Warch. Music for Study (A Source Book of Excerpts), Second Edition. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1973.
Soderlund, Gustave Fredric, and Samuel H. Scott. Examples of Gregorian Chant and Other Sacred Music of the 16th Century. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1971.
Starr, William J., and George F. Devine. Music Scores Omnibus, Part 1, Second Edition. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1974.
Ultan, Lloyd. Music Theory: Problems and Practices in the Middle Ages and Renaissance (Workbook/Anthology). Minneapolis, Minn.: University of Minnesota Press, 1977.
Walton, Charles W. Music Literature for Analysis and Study. Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth Publishing Company, Inc., 1973.
Ward-Steinman, David, and Susan L. Ward-Steinman. Comparative Anthology of Musical Forms, 2 Vols. Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth Publishing Company, Inc., 1976.
Wennerstrom, Mary H. Anthology of Twentieth-Century Music. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1969.